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Host tissue damage by phagocytes

Host tissue damage by phagocytes

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 832: 426-448

Evidence continues to accumulate on the importance of neutrophils (PMNs) and phagocytes in the causation of tissue and endothelial injury that frequently accompanies the inflammatory response. Increased production of superoxide anions in combination with decreased endothelial antioxidant activity may contribute to the development of vascular disease including atherosclerosis, vasospasm, diabetic vascular complications, tissue damage in ischemia-reperfusion, and hypotension. Free radicals generated in the vascular wall may act directly on smooth muscle or interact with each other thus producing biologically active endogenous mediators. Derangement of macrophage function may occur in conditions characterized by protein malnutrition, thus leading to failure to develop a specific immunoresponse and to an increase in the production of oxygen intermediate radicals, which may cause tissue damage. A local inflammatory response followed by endothelial cell activation could also facilitate migration of immunocompetent cells into the parenchyma of grafted organs and stimulate dendritic cells in the graft. There is now convincing evidence that excessive and prolonged production of NO contributes to tissue damage in septicemia, ischemia/reperfusion injury, and other inflammatory conditions. There is also increasing evidence that the complement system plays an important role in tissue damage in association with phagocytes, e.g., in ischemia/reperfusion injury, carcinogenesis, and aging. It can therefore be surmised that phagocytic cells may act both as "friends" and as "foes" and that they are important mediators of tissue damage in a variety of conditions.

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Accession: 046274946

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PMID: 9704069

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