+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

How oestrogen or progesterone might change a woman's susceptibility to HIV-1 infection

How oestrogen or progesterone might change a woman's susceptibility to HIV-1 infection

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 42(5): 472-475

Worldwide, 18.5 million women are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). At least 80% of these HIV infections have occurred as a result of sexual intercourse with an infected male partner. This review focuses on how HIV-1 enters the human female reproductive tract, and how oestrogen or progesterone, by altering the cervicovaginal epithelium, might change a woman's susceptibility to HIV infection. Experiments on hysterectomised Rhesus monkeys suggest that the vagina, rather than the cervix or uterus, is the main site of viral entry. If ovariectomised monkeys are given systemic oestrogen treatment, this makes them completely resistant to infection by intravaginally administered simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), whereas progesterone-treated animals, like the untreated controls, are extremely susceptible. Some studies have also shown that women on systemic long-acting gestagen-only contraceptives have a thinner vaginal epithelium and hence might be more susceptible to HIV infection; this is certainly true of post-menopausal women. The beneficial effects of oestrogen are thought to be due to increased thickness and cornification of the cervicovaginal epithelium, which prevents the virus from coming into contact with the target Langerhans cells (LCs). Topical vaginal oestrogen treatment is widely used as a safe and effective way of thickening and keratinising the vaginal epithelium in post-menopausal women. Perhaps this could be an exciting new way of protecting women from HIV infection.

Please choose payment method:

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 046280475

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 12495087

DOI: 10.1111/j.0004-8666.2002.00472.x

Related references

The contrasting effects of progesterone and oestrogen on the susceptibility of mice to genital infection with Mycoplasma pulmonis. Journal of Medical Microbiology 38(3): 160-165, 1993

Effects of interferon-tau and progesterone on oestrogen-stimulated expression of receptors for oestrogen, progesterone and oxytocin in the endometrium of ovariectomized ewes. Reproduction, Fertility, and Development 8(5): 843-853, 1996

Oestrogen and progesterone receptors in chick oviduct chromatin after administration of oestradiol, progesterone or anti-oestrogen. Biochemical Journal 204(3): 653-662, 1982

Pattern of oestrogen, progesterone and Her2neu receptors expression in a heterogeneous carcinoma of the breast in a lactating woman. Bmj Case Reports 2010:, 2010

Does tamoxifen change oestrogen and progesterone receptor expression in the endometrium and breast?. European Journal of Cancer 36(Suppl. 4): S45, 2000

Oestrogen and progesterone receptors in feline fibroadenomatous change: an immunohistochemical study. Research in Veterinary Science 68(1): 15-21, 2000

The role of oestrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer - immunohistochemical evaluation of oestrogen and progesterone receptor expression in invasive breast cancer in women. Contemporary Oncology 19(3): 220-225, 2015

The change in oestrogen and progesterone levels triggers adovarian propulsive movement of the hamster oviduct. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 59(1): 243-247, 1980

Oestrogen and progesterone change the binding characteristics of alpha-adrenergic and serotonin receptors on rabbit platelets. European Journal of Pharmacology 66(1): 21-30, 1980

Modulation by continuous oestrogen treatment and by progesterone of oestrogen receptors in the rabbit uterus. Journal of Endocrinology 115(2): 199-203, 1987

Commentary: hazards of studying women: the oestrogen oestrogen/progesterone dilemma. International Journal of Epidemiology 33(3): 459-460, 2004

Progesterone antagonism of the oestrogen receptor and oestrogen-induced uterine growth. Nature 254(5498): 337-339, 1975

Progesterone attenuates oestrogen neuroprotection via downregulation of oestrogen receptor expression in cultured neurones. Journal of Neuroendocrinology 21(1): 77-81, 2009

Oestrogen and progesterone receptor expression in the female lower urinary tract, with reference to oestrogen status. BJU International 86(1): 32-38, 2000

Hormone therapy with oestrogen or oestrogen plus progesterone decreases cognitive function in older postmenopausal women. Evidence-Based Healthcare and Public Health 8(6): 398-401, 2004