Hypertensive inferior esophageal sphincter. Prevalence and clinico-manometric features

Carmona-Sánchez, R.; Valerio-Ureña, J.; Valdovinos-Díaz, M.A.

Revista de Gastroenterologia de Mexico 66(4): 174-178


ISSN/ISBN: 0375-0906
PMID: 12078454
Accession: 046300698

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The hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter (HLES) is an unusual primary motor disorder of the esophagus. The lack of a precise definition has made it difficult to establish its prevalence and its clinical and manometric characteristics. 1) To determine the prevalence of HLES using precise diagnostic criteria, 2) To identify the clinical manifestations of this disease, and 2) To compare manometric findings in patients with HLES against normal subjects. A total of 705 consecutive esophageal manometries were performed over 52 months. HLES was defined as basal pressure 45 > or = mmHg, normal relaxation in response to swallowing, and normal peristalsis of the esophageal body. Clinical records were reviewed to identify the main symptoms that prompted the manometry. The manometric data of patients with HLES was compared to that of 16 healthy control subjects. Seven HLES patients were identified establishing a prevalence of 1%. Four HLES cases were referred due to dysphagia, two due to symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease, and one due to thoracic pain. Upon comparing manometric data of patients with HLES and healthy control subjects the motor function of the esophageal body, the total length of the lower esophageal sphincter, and its position in respect to the diaphragm were similar in both groups. Prevalence of HLES was 1%. Dysphagia was the main symptom. Total length of the sphincter, as well as length of the thoracic and abdominal segments do not appear to contribute to high basal pressure.