Identification of complex chromosome rearrangements in the gibbon by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) of a human chromosome 2q specific microlibrary, yeast artificial chromosomes, and reciprocal chromosome painting

Arnold, N.; Stanyon, R.; Jauch, A.; O'Brien, P.; Wienberg, J.

Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics 74(1-2): 80-85


ISSN/ISBN: 0301-0171
PMID: 8893807
Accession: 046314848

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Chromosome painting has revealed that the human chromosome homologs in lesser apes are often fragmented and translocated to a number of different hylobatid chromosomes. We investigated the fragmented human chromosome 2 homologs in gibbons to illustrate a new strategy in mapping regional and band-specific chromosomal homologies between species. Previous research showed that the DNA library specific to human chromosome 2 paints parts of four gibbon (lar species group) chromosomes (viz., 1, 10, 12, and 16) and yields five distinct hybridization signals (including two on gibbon chromosome 16). However, the exact segments of human chromosome 2 that were translocated to the various gibbon chromosomes could not be distinguished. To determine the origin of the human chromosome 2 signals, we hybridized a microlibrary for the long arm of human chromosome 2, as well as YACs specific for most of the major bands on this chromosome, to metaphases of the gibbon. For reciprocal chromosome painting, we hybridized flow-sorted gibbon chromosome probes to human chromosome 2. Each method added additional insights that helped clarify the shuffling of human chromosome 2 material in the highly reorganized gibbon genome. There was an excellent correspondence between these complementary techniques. YAC 958d2 identified the breakpoint between human chromosome 2 material present on gibbon chromosomes 10 and 16. The reciprocal chromosome painting permitted a more complete and regional assignment of homology between segments on various gibbon chromosomes to human chromosome 2. The results show that a combination of reciprocal chromosome painting, subregional microlibraries, and band-specific probes (such as YACs) can be used to identify homologies between species and to rapidly construct detailed comparative chromosome maps, especially when the karyotypes are highly rearranged.