In vitro maturation and in vitro fertilization of bovine oocytes cultured in a chemically defined, protein-free medium: effects of carbohydrates and amino acids
Lim, J.M.; Lee, B.C.; Lee, E.S.; Chung, H.M.; Ko, J.J.; Park, S.E.; Cha, K.Y.; Hwang, W.S.
Reproduction Fertility and Development 11(2): 127-132
ISSN/ISBN: 1031-3613 PMID: 10735557 DOI: 10.1071/rd99001
This study was conducted to examine the effects of carbohydrates and amino acids on the maturation and fertilization of bovine oocytes. To evaluate the effect of each treatment without any unpredictable interference, oocytes were cultured in a simply defined medium (modified Tyrode's medium; mT) without the addition of hormones and proteins. In Experiment 1, oocyte maturation to the metaphase-II stage was significantly (P<0.0001) enhanced after the addition of glucose (5.6 mM), lactate (10 mM) and/or pyruvate (0.5 mM) to mT (37-74%) than after no addition (0%). In mT supplemented with glucose, the addition of 19 essential and non-essential amino acids (aa; 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 5 or 10%) did not further improve in vitro maturation (Experiment 2) or in vitro fertilization (Experiment 3) of oocytes. However, more (P<0.05) pronuclear formation after in vitro-insemination was found in oocytes matured in mT with 1% aa and glucose than in oocytes matured in mT with glucose alone (56% vs. 35%). Penetration of spermatozoa into the ooplasm was initiated at 3 h after insemination and pronuclear formation from 8 h (Experiment 4). When cultured inseminated oocytes were examined up to 192 h post insemination, a significant (P<0.05) increase in the number of 2-cell (18 v. 38%) and 8-cell embryos, (7 v. 20%) and morulae (0 v. 8%) was found after the addition of 1% aa to mT with glucose than after no addition (Experiment 5). A limited number of oocytes matured in mT with aa and glucose developed to the blastocyst stage (6%). These results indicate that exogenous carbohydrates and amino acids are prerequisites for the maturation and fertilization of bovine oocytes in vitro. Glucose alone promotes the nuclear maturation of oocytes, whereas amino acids aid the pronuclear formation of fertilized oocytes.