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A model for determining an effective in vivo dose of transplanted islets based on in vitro insulin secretion



A model for determining an effective in vivo dose of transplanted islets based on in vitro insulin secretion



Xenotransplantation 25(6): E12443



Label="BACKGROUND">Allogeneic islet transplantation for the treatment of type 1 diabetes often requires multiple implant procedures, from as many as several human pancreas donors, to achieve lasting clinical benefit. Given the limited availability of human pancreases for islet isolation, porcine islets have long been considered a potential option for clinical use. Agarose-encapsulated porcine islets (macrobeads) permit long-term culture and thus a thorough evaluation of microbiological safety and daily insulin secretory capacity, prior to implantation. The goal of this study was the development of a method for determining an effective dose of encapsulated islets based on their measured in vitro insulin secretion in a preclinical model of type 1 diabetes.Label="METHODS">Spontaneously diabetic BioBreeding diabetes-prone rats were implanted with osmotic insulin pumps in combination with continuous glucose monitoring to establish the daily insulin dose required to achieve continuous euglycaemia in individual animals. Rats were then implanted with a 1×, 2× or 3× dose (defined as the ratio of macrobead in vitro insulin secretion per 24 hours to the recipient animal's total daily insulin requirement) of porcine islet macrobeads, in the absence of immunosuppression. In vivo macrobead function was assessed by recipient non-fasted morning blood glucose values, continuous glucose monitoring and the presence of peritoneal porcine C-peptide. At the end of the study, the implanted macrobeads were removed and returned to in vitro culture for the evaluation of insulin secretion.Label="RESULTS">Diabetic rats receiving a 2× macrobead implant exhibited significantly improved blood glucose regulation compared to that of rats receiving a 1× dose during a 30-day pilot study. In a 3-month follow-up study, 2× and 3× macrobead doses initially controlled blood glucose levels equally well, although several animals receiving a 3× dose maintained euglycaemia throughout the study, compared to none of the 2× animals. The presence of porcine C-peptide in rat peritoneal fluid 3 months post-implant and the recurrence of hyperglycaemia following macrobead removal, along with the finding of persistent in vitro insulin secretion from retrieved macrobeads, confirmed long-term graft function.Label="CONCLUSIONS">Increasing dosages of islet macrobeads transplanted into diabetic rats, based on multiples of in vitro insulin secretion matched to the recipient's exogenous insulin requirements, correlated with improved blood glucose regulation and increased duration of graft function. These results demonstrate the usefulness of a standardized model for the evaluation of the functional effectiveness of islets intended for transplantation, in this case using intraperitoneally implanted agarose macrobeads, in diabetic rats. The results suggest that some features of this islet-dosing methodology may be applicable, and indeed necessary, to clinical allogeneic and xenogeneic islet transplantation.

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Accession: 046427879

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 30054944

DOI: 10.1111/xen.12443


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