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Intracranial hemorrhage and hemostasis. Monitoring patients after intracranial hemorrhage by determination and follow-up of activation products of blood coagulation

Intracranial hemorrhage and hemostasis. Monitoring patients after intracranial hemorrhage by determination and follow-up of activation products of blood coagulation

Infusionstherapie und Transfusionsmedizin 21(4): 244-250

The aim of the study was to improve the detection of small hemorrhages with minimal symptoms and of unruptured aneurysms after a subdural and subarachnoid bleeding by the control of the intravascular hemostatic system. Prospective, open study. Neurosurgical intensive care unit of a university hospital. 44 patients undergoing a cranial trepanation. Patients of group 1 (control n = 11) had an intrasellar hypophysoma, patients of group 2 (n = 12) a chronic subdural hematoma without a previous traumatic incident and patients of group 3 (n = 15) a subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by an intracranial aneurysm. After cranial trepanation changes of plasmatic hemostasis have been assessed by means of immunologically determined parameters of coagulation. The investigation included blood parameters (hemoglobin, hematocrit, thrombocytes), clotting status (prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, fibrinogen, plasminogen, antithrombin III [AT III] activity and proteinase inhibitors), as well as immunological methods such as fibrinopeptide A (FPA), thrombin-antithrombin III (TAT), protein C and factor XIII activity (F XIII activity). In comparison to group 1 (control) a significant difference (p < 0.001) was seen in groups 2 and 3 for thrombin-antithrombin III (TAT), fibrinopeptide A (FPA), protein C, and the antithrombin III activity. Intra- and postoperatively increased TAT levels in groups 2 (16.9 ng/ml) and 3 (21.1 ng/ml) and decreased protein C levels (group 2: 61% and group 3: 58%) demonstrated an intravascular thrombin generation. On account of the elevated FPA levels in groups 2 (6.5 ng/ml) and 3 (5.7 ng/ml) and decreased AT III activity in groups 2 (58%) and 3 (62%), this thrombin generation was only incompletely compensated. Caused by proteolytic thrombin effects, another sign for a thrombin-induced turnover of clotting factors is the significant reduction (p < 0.001) of F XIII activity in groups 2 (40%) and 3 (44%). In comparison to group 1 this significantly reduced F XIII activity in groups 2 and 3 was correlated (r = 0.99) to changes in FPA and TAT plasma levels, an indication of latent chronic clotting activity. No significant difference was found concerning total amount of infusion, intra- and postoperative blood loss and blood parameters. Eight patients (group 2: 5 patients, group 3: 3 patients) showed a rebleeding episode without operative interventions. In these patients increased clotting activity (TAT, FPA, protein C) caused by proteolytic thrombin effects was combined with a factor XIII activity smaller than 40%. The results of the recent study indicated that immunologically determined TAT, FPA, protein C, factor XIII and AT III activities might serve to improve management in patients with intracranial bleeding events. In view of these parameters the evaluation of risks for a rebleeding is improved. A decrease of the plasma factor XIII activity under 40% associated with a latent clotting activity induced by a thrombin generation caused a higher risk of rebleeding after an initial intracranial bleeding event. The necessity of substituting factor XIII in such cases should be elucidated to minimize risks of rebleeding.

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Accession: 046451001

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PMID: 7950289

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