+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Lidocaine iontophoresis versus eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) for IV placement in children



Lidocaine iontophoresis versus eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) for IV placement in children



Anesthesia and Analgesia 94(6): 1484



Pain during venipuncture is a major source of concern to children and their caretakers. Iontophoresis is a novel technique that uses an electrical current to facilitate movement of solute ions (lidocaine) across the stratum corneum barrier to provide dermal analgesia. In this study, we compared dermal analgesia provided by lidocaine iontophoresis and eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA). After informed consent, 26 children, aged 7-16 yr, who required venous cannulation on multiple occasions, were enrolled in this prospective, randomized, crossover study to receive EMLA and iontophoresis on separate occasions. During a third session, each subject received his or her preferred treatment. Pain during venipuncture was assessed by the subject, parent, observer, and technician performing the procedure, by use of a 100-mm visual analog scale. The observer also used the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale to rate the subject's pain. Ratings of subject satisfaction were also assessed. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the subject-rated visual analog scale or the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale scores. Eleven (50%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 31%-69%) of the 22 subjects who completed both sessions preferred iontophoresis. Five subjects (23%; 95% CI, 10%-44%), including two who did not tolerate treatment with iontophoresis, preferred EMLA, and six (27%; 95% CI, 13%-48%) had no preference for the intervention to provide dermal analgesia. We conclude that lidocaine iontophoresis provides similar pain relief for insertion of IV catheters as EMLA and is a useful noninvasive alternative to establish dermal analgesia for venous cannulation. Iontophoresis is a technique that uses an electrical current to facilitate movement of solute ions (lidocaine) across the stratum corneum barrier to provide dermal analgesia. Lidocaine iontophoresis provides similar pain relief for insertion of IV catheters as eutectic mixture of local anesthetics and is a useful noninvasive alternative to establish dermal analgesia for venous cannulation.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 046544397

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 12032012

DOI: 10.1213/00000539-200206000-00020


Related references

Lidocaine Iontophoresis Versus Eutectic Mixture of Local Anesthetics (Emla??) for Iv Placement in Children. Anesthesia and Analgesia 94(6): 1484-1488, 2002

Comparison of iontophoresis of lidocaine with a eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine (EMLA) for topically administered local anesthesia. Journal of Dermatologic Surgery and Oncology 20(9): 579-583, 1994

Comparison of Iontophoresis of Lidocaine with a Eutectic Mixture of Lidocaine and Prilocaine (Emla) for Topically Administered Local Anesthesia. The Journal of Dermatologic Surgery and Oncology 20(9): 579-583, 1994

Comparison of the analgesic effects of EMLA (eutectic mixture of local anesthetics) to intradermal lidocaine infiltration prior to venous cannulation in unpremedicated children. Anesthesiology 68(5): 804-806, 1988

Depth of cutaneous analgesia after application of a eutectic mixture of the local anesthetics lidocaine and prilocaine (EMLA cream). Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 42(4): 584-588, 2000

Absorption of lidocaine and prilocaine after application of a eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) on normal and diseased skin. Acta Dermato-Venereologica 69(1): 18-22, 1989

Study on the efficacy of ELA-Max (4% liposomal lidocaine) compared with EMLA cream (eutectic mixture of local anesthetics) using thermosensory threshold analysis in adult volunteers. Journal of Dermatological Treatment 15(2): 84-87, 2004

Use of the eutectic ointment EMLA (Eutectic Mixture of Local Anesthetics) in the surgical treatment of inguinal hernia under local anesthesia. Annali Italiani di Chirurgia 69(2): 221-223, 1998

Comparison of analgesic effect of lidocaine tape versus eutectic mixture of lidocaine and tetracaine during infiltration of local anesthetics before epidural block. Masui. Japanese Journal of Anesthesiology 45(9): 1074-1077, 1996

Eutectic lidocaine/prilocaine cream. A review of the topical anaesthetic/analgesic efficacy of a eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics (EMLA). Drugs 46(1): 126-151, 1993

Eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA): what is it? What does it do?. Journal of Pediatrics 122(5 Pt 2): S21, 1993

Eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) cream. Anesthesia and Analgesia 78(3): 574-583, 1994

Eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA): evaluation of the analgesic effectiveness during ND: YAG laser turbinoplasty. Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica 21(5): 287-289, 2001

Reduction of pain at venous cannulation in children with a eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine (EMLA cream): comparison with placebo cream and no local premedication. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 31(8): 735-739, 1987

Topical amethocaine (Ametop) is superior to EMLA for intravenous cannulation. Eutectic mixture of local anesthetics. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 46(11): 1014-1018, 1999