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Lysosomal oxidative stress cytotoxicity induced by nitrofurantoin redox cycling in hepatocytes

Lysosomal oxidative stress cytotoxicity induced by nitrofurantoin redox cycling in hepatocytes

Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 500: 261-265

1. The enzymes responsible for the reductive activation of NFT are not known. We have now shown that under aerobic conditions, inhibitors of cytochrome P450 or P450 reductase but not DT diaphorase prevented NFT induced cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species ("ROS") formation. This suggests that NFT was reductively activated by reduced cytochrome P450 and/or P450 reductase. 2. The subcellular organelle oxidative stress effects leading to cytotoxicity are not known. Hepatocyte mitochondrial membrane potential was only slightly decreased by NFT before cytotoxicity ensued. However NFT induced lysosomal damage and hepatocyte protease activation. Endocytosis inhibitors, lysosomotropic agents or lysosomal protease inhibitors also prevented NFT induced cytotoxicity. 3. Lipid peroxidation also preceded cytotoxicity. Furthermore desferoxamine (a ferric chelator), antioxidants or ROS scavengers (catalase, mannitol, TEMPOL or dimethylsulfoxide) prevented NFT cytotoxicity. 4. It is concluded that H2O2 reacts with lysosomal Fe(+2) to form "ROS" which causes lysosomal lipid peroxidation, membrane disruption, protease release and cell death.

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Accession: 046587995

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PMID: 11764951

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