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Mandibular distraction in temporomandibular joint ankylosis

Mandibular distraction in temporomandibular joint ankylosis

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 104(7): 2021-2031

Condylar damage during childhood can produce ankylosis and alteration of the mandibular growth. In case of unilateral ankylosis occurring in early childhood, a mandibular hypoplasia of the affected side may develop. The patients have limitation of mouth opening, facial asymmetry, and chin deviation toward the affected side. The aims of this study are to show the use of distraction osteogenesis in mandibular hypoplasia associated with ankylosis and to present our experience with a new therapeutic option for the treatment of mandibular hypoplasia with unilateral ankylosis in the childhood consisting of the association of arthroplasty to treat the ankylosis and mandibular distraction to correct the facial asymmetry, both accomplished in the same surgical procedure. From November of 1996 to November of 1997, three male patients aged 2, 7, and 13 years with mandibular hypoplasia and ankylosis were treated by distraction osteogenesis. An arthroplasty consisting of the resection of the ankylotic block and interposition of a temporalis muscle flap, plus coronoidectomy was done in two of them and mandibular distraction was done in all three patients. Articular functional rehabilitation began on the first postoperative day. Mandibular distraction began on the fifth postoperative day with a rate of 1 mm per day, ending when the facial symmetry was achieved. From the first postoperative day, an increase in the mouth opening was achieved; this increase continued until ending the distraction. The average duration of distraction was 22 days. Average duration of consolidation was 6 weeks. Oral opening increased from 10 mm to 35 mm in the 7-year-old patient, from 9 mm to 27 mm in the 2-year-old patient, and from 14 mm to 38 mm in the 13-year-old patient. To date, oral opening and facial symmetry persist. Osseous mandibular distraction together with arthroplasty offers an excellent new alternative for treatment of patients with mandibular hypoplasia and associated ankylosis, with minimal morbidity and complications.

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Accession: 046619741

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PMID: 11149764

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