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Metabolism of 2',3'-dideoxy-2',3'-didehydro-beta-L(-)-5-fluorocytidine and its activity in combination with clinically approved anti-human immunodeficiency virus beta-D(+) nucleoside analogs in vitro



Metabolism of 2',3'-dideoxy-2',3'-didehydro-beta-L(-)-5-fluorocytidine and its activity in combination with clinically approved anti-human immunodeficiency virus beta-D(+) nucleoside analogs in vitro



Antimicrobial Agents and ChemoTherapy 42(7): 1799-1804



2',3'-Dideoxy-2',3'-didehydro-beta-L(-)-5-fluorocytidine [L(-)Fd4C] has been reported to be a potent inhibitor of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in cell culture. In the present study the antiviral activity of this compound in two-drug combinations and its intracellular metabolism are addressed. The two-drug combination of L(-)Fd4C plus 2',3'-didehydro-2'-3'-dideoxythymidine (D4T, or stavudine) or 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT, or zidovudine) synergistically inhibited replication of HIV in vitro. Additive antiviral activity was observed with L(-)Fd4C in combination with 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC, or zalcitabine) or 2',3'-dideoxyinosine (ddI, or didanosine). This beta-L(-) nucleoside analog has no activity against mitochondrial DNA synthesis at concentrations up to 10 microM. As we previously reported for other beta-L(-) nucleoside analogs, L(-)Fd4C could protect against mitochondrial toxicity associated with D4T, ddC, and ddI. Metabolism studies showed that this drug is converted intracellularly to its mono-, di-, and triphosphate metabolites. The enzyme responsible for monophosphate formation was identified as cytoplasmic deoxycytidine kinase, and the K(m) is 100 microM. L(-)Fd4C was not recognized in vitro by human mitochondrial deoxypyrimidine nucleoside kinase. Also, L(-)Fd4C was not a substrate for deoxycytidine deaminase. L(-)Fd4C 5'-triphosphate served as an alternative substrate to dCTP for incorporation into DNA by HIV reverse transcriptase. The favorable anti-HIV activity and protection from mitochondrial toxicity by L(-)Fd4C in two-drug combinations favors the further development of L(-)Fd4C as an anti-HIV agent.

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Accession: 046669965

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PMID: 9661024



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