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Ornipressin (POR 8)--effect on coronary blood circulation and the peripheral circulation. An animal experimental study



Ornipressin (POR 8)--effect on coronary blood circulation and the peripheral circulation. An animal experimental study



Der Anaesthesist 42(9): 597-604



Ornipressin (POR 8), referred to below as OR, is a synthetic derivative of natural vasopressin. It was introduced into clinical practice to replace epinephrine as a local vasoconstrictor because OR was presumed to produce fewer undesirable side-effects. However, mayor cardiovascular complications following local infiltration of OR have been reported in recent time. Beside increased blood pressure and changes in heart rate, there is evidence that the systemic effects of OR include a distinct vasopressor activity on coronary arteries. This study was planned to investigate the effects of OR in haemodynamics and the coronary vascular system. METHODS. The effects of OR on systemic haemodynamics and coronary circulation were studied in nine anaesthetized closed-chest mongrel dogs. Anaesthesia was administered using N2O/O2 (FiO2:0.33) and enflurane (1.0 vol% endtidal). Saline-filled catheters were used to measure intravascular pressures. Left ventricular pressure change (dP/dt) was monitored with a tip catheter manometer. Cardiac output (CO) was determined using thermodilution and coronary sinus blood flow, using a Pitot catheter. Recording of baseline values was followed by bolus injection of OR (0.03 U/kg) and changes in haemodynamics were measured for 90 min at fixed time intervals. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance for repeated measures. A value of P < or = 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. RESULTS. Significant maximum changes occurred within 3-5 min after administration of OR. Systolic and diastolic arterial pressures increased by 33% and 39%, respectively. With only minor changes in heart rate, cardiac output markedly decreased by 44% and total peripheral resistance increased by 159%. Impaired pump function of the left ventricle became obvious by a decrease in maximum dP/dt, a decrease in ejection fraction by 35%, and a concomitant sharp increase in left ventricular enddiastolic pressure by 68% and in endosystolic volume by 41%. At the same time, OR produced a marked impairment of coronary perfusion. Myocardial blood flow fell by 32%, while coronary vascular resistance rose by 112%. Increased myocardial oxygen demand and reduced oxygen supply resulted in very low values of coronary venous oxygen saturation (< 20%). CONCLUSIONS. Systemic effects of OR are characterized by a sharp rise in arterial blood pressure. Concomitantly a decrease of myocardial contractility leads to a compromised left ventricular function with marked increases in left ventricular enddiastolic pressure. These haemodynamic changes are associated with an imbalance of myocardial oxygen demand and delivery due to the distinct OR-induced coronary constriction. With regard to the deterioration of systemic and cardiac haemodynamics the indications and use of ornipressin in clinical practice need to be reevaluated.

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Accession: 046884300

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PMID: 8214531


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