+ Site Statistics
References:
54,258,434
Abstracts:
29,560,870
PMIDs:
28,072,757
+ Search Articles
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ PDF Full Text
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Pedicle and antler regeneration following antlerogenic tissue removal in red deer (Cervus elaphus)



Pedicle and antler regeneration following antlerogenic tissue removal in red deer (Cervus elaphus)



Journal of Experimental Zoology 269(1): 37-44



The physiological control mechanisms underlying the histogenesis of the pedicle, which precedes antler growth, from the frontal bones of male deer are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of pedicle/antler regeneration after removal (for histological evaluation) of the antlerogenic region or pedicle tissue during pedicle development to determine whether the subsequent pattern of regeneration could contribute to the understanding of pedicle histogenesis and the mechanism of the transition between permanent pedicles and deciduous antlers. The contralateral pedicles of six stags were not removed and these data serve as controls. All deer were observed frequently and measurements of regeneration were made in March after all antler growth had ceased for that season. The developmental stage of the pedicle was determined by a combination of pedicle height measurements and histological studies. The results showed that pedicle formation histologically covers three stages: a period of intramembranous ossification (when the pedicle is less than 5 mm in height), a period when the ossification pattern changes (when the pedicle is between 5 and 28 mm in height) and a period of modified endochondral ossification (when the pedicle is over 30 mm in height). In all ossification stages some deer regenerated neither antlers nor pedicles. The pedicles which regenerated following the loss of antlerogenic tissue at the intramembranous ossification stage were shorter than the controls (P lt 0.01), but longer than the pedicles regenerated after pedicle removal at the transitional stage in the pattern of ossification (P lt 0.01). No pedicle tissue was regenerated if the pedicles were removed at the endochondral ossification stage and antlers were directly formed from the deer's head. Thus the final height of the regenerated pedicles was closely linked with the histological ossification stage of the original pedicle at removal. Antler regeneration took place at all stages but two deer grew pedicles only when tissue removal took place during the transition period. Overall the results provide evidence that the potential to regenerate a pedicle diminishes as the pedicle increases in height and the necessity for pedicle growth to precede antler growth also decreases. The fact that some deer, whose tissues were removed at the transition period of ossification change, regenerated pedicles but failed to generate antlers highlights the importance of this stage for the transition between the permanent pedicle and the deciduous antler. The results provide evidence for an hypothesis that it is the transition between ossification types which signals the end of pedicle development and the onset of antler development.

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 046939990

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 8207380

DOI: 10.1002/jez.1402690105


Related references

Pedicle and antler development following sectioning of the sensory nerves to the antlerogenic region of red deer (Cervus elaphus). Journal of Experimental Zoology 267(2): 188-197, 1993

Light microscopic studies of pedicle and early first antler development in red deer (Cervus elaphus). Anatomical Record 239(2): 198-215, 1994

The induction of antler growth by amputation of the pedicle in red deer cervus elaphus males castrated before puberty. Folia Biologica (Cracow) 24(3): 299-308, 1976

Histological examination of antler regeneration in red deer (Cervus elaphus). Anatomical Record. Part A, Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology 282(2): 163-174, 2005

Morphological observation of antler regeneration in red deer (Cervus elaphus). Journal of Morphology 262(3): 731-740, 2004

Effects of testosterone on pedicle formation and its transformation to antler in castrated male, freemartin and normal female red deer (Cervus elaphus). General and Comparative Endocrinology 131(1): 21-31, 2003

Antler asymmetry in a yearling red deer stag Cervus elaphus with unilateral double-head formation Geweihasymmetrie bei einem Rothirsch-Jahrling Cervus elaphus mit einseitiger Doppelkopfbildung. Zeitschrift fuer Jagdwissenschaft. Marz; 401: 62-66, 1994

Repeated formation of two antler sets per year in a wild red deer stag Cervus elaphus L Wiederholte zweimalige Geweihbildung innerhalb eines Jahres bei einem freilebenden Rothirsch Cervus elaphus L. Zeitschrift fuer Jagdwissenschaft. September; 443: 178-183, 1998

Comparison of analgesic techniques for antler removal in halothane-anaesthetized red deer (Cervus elaphus): electroencephalographic responses. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 32(2): 61-71, 2005

Structure and mineralisation density of antler and pedicle bone in red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) exposed to different levels of environmental fluoride: a quantitative backscattered electron imaging study. Journal of Anatomy 196: 71-83, 2000

Comparison of analgesic techniques for antler removal in halothane-anaesthetized red deer (Cervus elaphus): cardiovascular and somatic responses. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 32(2): 72-82, 2005

Histological examination of the antlerogenic region of red deer (Cervus elaphus) hummels. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 44(4): 126-130, 1996

Element concentrations and element ratios in antler and pedicle bone of yearling red deer (Cervus elaphus) stags-a quantitative X-ray fluorescence study. Biological Trace Element Research 162(1-3): 124-133, 2015

Antler transformation is advanced by inversion of antlerogenic periosteum implants in sika deer (Cervus nippon). Anatomical Record 293(10): 1787-1796, 2011

Histogenesis of antlerogenic tissues cultivated in diffusion chambers in vivo in red deer (Cervus elaphus). Journal of Experimental Zoology 272(5): 345-355, 1995