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Respiratory comfort of automatic tube compensation and inspiratory pressure support in conscious humans



Respiratory comfort of automatic tube compensation and inspiratory pressure support in conscious humans



Intensive Care Medicine 23(11): 1119-1124



To compare the new mode of ventilatory support, which we call automatic tube compensation (ATC), with inspiratory pressure support (IPS) with respect to perception of respiratory comfort. ATC unloads the resistance of the endotracheal tube (ETT) in inspiration by increasing the airway pressure, and in expiration by decreasing the airway pressure according to the non-linear pressure-flow relationship of the ETT. Prospective randomized single blind cross-over study. Laboratory of the Section of Experimental Anaesthesiology (Clinic of Anaesthesiology; University of Freiburg). Ten healthy volunteers. The subjects breathed spontaneously through an ETT of 7.5 mm i.d. Three different ventilatory modes, each with a PEEP of 5 cmH2O, were presented in random order using the Dräger Evita 2 ventilator with prototype software: (1) IPS (10 cmH2O, 1 s ramp), (2) inspiratory ATC (ATC-in), (3) inspiratory and expiratory ATC (ATC-in-ex). Immediately following a mode transition, the volunteers answered with a hand sign to show how they perceived the new mode compared with the preceding mode in terms of gain or loss in subjective respiratory comfort: "better", "unchanged" or "worse". Inspiration and expiration were investigated separately analyzing 60 mode transitions each. Flow rates were continuously measured. The transition from IPS to either type of ATC was perceived positively, i.e. as increased comfort, whereas the opposite transition from ATC to IPS was perceived negatively, i.e. as decreased comfort. The transition from ATC-in to ATC-in-ex was perceived positively whereas the opposite mode transition was perceived negatively in expiration only. Tidal volume was 1220 +/- 404 ml during IPS and 1017 +/- 362 ml during ATC. The inspiratory peak flow rate was 959 +/- 78 ml/s during IPS and 1048 +/- 197 ml/s during ATC. ATC provides an increase in respiratory comfort compared with IPS. The predominant cause for respiratory discomfort in the IPS mode seems to be lung over-inflation.

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Accession: 047250951

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PMID: 9434916


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