+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Severe and fatal mass attacks by 'killer' bees (Africanized honey bees--Apis mellifera scutellata) in Brazil: clinicopathological studies with measurement of serum venom concentrations

Severe and fatal mass attacks by 'killer' bees (Africanized honey bees--Apis mellifera scutellata) in Brazil: clinicopathological studies with measurement of serum venom concentrations

Quarterly Journal of Medicine 87(5): 269-282

In São Paulo State, Brazil, five males, aged between 8 and 64 years, were attacked by 'Africanized' honey bees (Apis mellifera scutellata). The estimated number of stings received by each patient ranged from > 200 to > 1000. All five were transferred to intensive care units in São Paulo City. Clinical features included intravascular haemolysis, respiratory distress with ARDS, hepatic dysfunction, rhabdomyolysis (with myoglobinaemia and myoglobinuria), hypertension and myocardial damage (perhaps explained by release of endogenous catecholamines by venom phospholipase A2 and mellitin), shock, coma, acute renal failure and bleeding. Laboratory findings included gross neutrophil leucocytosis, elevated serum enzymes [AST, ALT, LDH, CPK (predominantly CPK-MM)] and creatinine. Clotting times were slightly prolonged. Despite treatment with antihistamines, corticosteroids, bronchodilators, vasodilators, bicarbonate, mannitol and mechanical ventilation, three of the patients died between 22 and 71 h after the attacks, with histopathological features of ARDS, hepatocellular necrosis, acute tubular necrosis, focal subendocardial necrosis and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Whole bee venom and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) antigen concentrations were measured in serum and urine for the first time, using enzyme immunoassay. High venom and PLA2 concentrations were detected in serum and urine for more than 50 h after the stings in two fatal cases, in one of which the total circulating unbound whole venom was estimated at 27 mg, one hour after the attack. An antivenom should be developed to treat the increasing numbers of victims of mass attacks by Africanized 'killer' bees in USA, Middle and South America.

Please choose payment method:

(PDF emailed within 1 workday: $29.90)

Accession: 047350169

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 7938407

Related references

Honey production by two types of africanized honey bees (hybrids of Apis mellifera scutellata) in western plains of Venezuela. Zootecnia Tropical 20(2): 259-266, 2002

Location of genes in apis mellifera scutellata derived mitochondrial dna of africanized honey bees. Apidologie 22(6): 611-619, 1991

Defense mechanisms of honey bees against varroosis and brood diseases: comparison between Apis mellifera carnica and Africanized bees in Brazil. Apidologie 27(4): 286-288, 1996

The introduction of the African bees (Apis mellifera adansonii) into Brazil and some comments on their spread in South America; Comments on the aggressiveness of the Africanized bees in Brazil; Do the Africanized bees of Brazil only sting?. American Bee Journal 114; 115: 414-415, 419; 448-450; 8-10, 24, 1974

Prevalence of Varroa destructor in Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier) in Lara State, Venezuela. Proceedings of the 8th IBRA International Conference on Tropical Bees and VI Encontro sobre Abelhas, Ribeirao Preto, Brasil, 6-10 September 2004: 347-350, 2004

Electrophoretic detection of Africanized honey bees Apis mellifera scutellata in Guatemala and Mexico based on malate dehydrogenase allozyme patterns. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 57.4: 622-631, 1985

Distribution of apiaries and disease diagnosis of the Africanized honey bees, Apis mellifera scutellata (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae), of Zulia State, Venezuela. Revista de la Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad del Zulia 12(2): 269-283, 1995

Electrophoretic Detection of Africanized Honey Bees$(Apis mellifera scutellata)^{1}$in Guatemala and Mexico Based on Malate Dehydrogenase Allozyme Patterns. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 57(4): 622-631, 1984

Diagnostic molecular markers discriminating Africanized honey bees from Greek and Cypriot honey bees (Apis mellifera, Hymenoptera : Apidae). Journal of Apicultural Research 45(4): 197-202, 2006

Morphometric differences between south american africanized and south african apis mellifera scutellata honey bees. Apidologie 18(3): 217-222, 1987

Variation morphogeometrics of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera) in Brazil. Iheringia. Série Zoologia 102(3): 321-326, 2012

A practical means for distinguishing Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) from European honey bees by using central excitatory state, appendage mobility and sting viability. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science 44(3): 212-221, 2007

Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are more efficient at removing worker brood artificially infested with the parasitic mite Varroa jacobsoni Oudemans than are Italian bees or Italian/Africanized hybrids. Genetics and Molecular Biology 23(1): 89-92, 2000

Mineral content in Africanized honey bees Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) honey samples from some municipalities of the State of Ceara, Brazil. Boletim de Industria Animal 62(1): 9-18, 2007

Behavioural response of drone honey bees, Apis mellifera carnica and Apis mellifera scutellata, to worker-produced pheromone components. Journal of Apicultural Research 39(3/4): 149-152, 2000