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A case report of a low-birth-weight infant with a subcapsular liver hematoma and spontaneous bowel perforation

A case report of a low-birth-weight infant with a subcapsular liver hematoma and spontaneous bowel perforation

Advances in Neonatal Care 4(2): 67-78

This case report describes a 27-week, 1040-g infant, whose mother presented with an acute abruption and fetal distress prompting emergency cesarean birth. The birth was further complicated by fetal malposition, manual version, birth trauma, and perinatal depression requiring intubation, ventilation, and chest compressions. On day of life (DOL) 7, the infant suddenly deteriorated with cardiovascular collapse and severe coagulopathy. Coexisting spontaneous bowel perforation (SBP) and ruptured subcapsular liver hematoma (SLH) were confirmed operatively. Although survival with ruptured SLH is rarely reported, with aggressive medical and surgical management, this infant survived and was discharged home at 43 weeks postconceptual age. SBP may occur silently; pneumoperitoneum may be an incidental finding. Conversely, rupture of an SLH typically presents with a sudden clinical deterioration. The common predisposing factor for both conditions is low birth weight (LBW). A review of the known and proposed risk factors, clinical signs and symptoms, pathophysiology, and treatment of both SBP and SLH are provided. A literature review highlighting the potential impact of drug exposures (indomethacin, hydrocortisone, and low molecular weight heparin) is provided, along with a discussion of the implications for clinical practice and research.

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Accession: 048051064

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 15138990

DOI: 10.1016/j.adnc.2004.01.003

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