+ Translate
+ Most Popular
The pigeon tick (Argas reflexus): its biology, ecology, and epidemiological aspects
Prevalence of hemoglobin abnormalities in Kebili (Tunisian South)
Lipogranuloma: a preventable complication of dacryocystorhinostomy
Value of basal plasma cortisol assays in the assessment of pituitary-adrenal insufficiency
Bees from the Belgian Congo. The acraensis group of Anthophora
Placing gingival retraction cord
Total serum IgE, allergy skin testing, and the radioallergosorbent test for the diagnosis of allergy in asthmatic children
Acariens plumicoles Analgesoidea parasites des oiseaux du Maroc
Injuries of terminal phalanges of the fingers in children
Biology of flowering and nectar production in pear (Pyrus communis)
Das Reliktvorkommen der Aspisviper (Vipera aspis L.) im Schwarzwald
Hydrological modelling of drained blanket peatland
Pathologic morphology and clinical significance of the anomalous origin of the left circumflex coronary artery from the right coronary artery. General review and autopsy analysis of 30 cases
Cyto genetic analyses of lymphocyte cultures after exposure to calcium cyclamate
Axelrodia riesei, a new characoid fish from Upper Rio Meta in Colombia With remarks concerning the genus Axelrodia and description of a similar, sympatric, Hyphessobrycon-species
Favorable evolution of a case of tuberculosis of pancreas under antibiotic action
RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, Valencene, CAS Registry Number 4630-07-3
Parenteral microemulsions: an overview
Temperate pasture: management for grazing and conservation
Evaluation of a new coprocessed compound based on lactose and maize starch for tablet formulation
Thermal expansion and cracking of three confined water-saturated igneous rocks to 800C
Revision of the genera of the tribe Stigmoderini (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) a discussion of phylogenetic relationships
Anal tuberculosis. Report of a case
Gastric tuberculosis in the past and present
Adaptive responses of the cardiovascular system to prolonged spaceflight conditions: assessment with Holter monitoring

Biological and toxin terrorism weapons

Biological and toxin terrorism weapons

Arhiv Za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju 54(1): 29-43

ISSN/ISBN: 0004-1254

PMID: 14574772

The use of biological agents and toxins in warfare and terrorism has a long history. Human, animal and plant pathogens and toxins can cause disease and can be used as a threat to humans, animals and staple crops. The same is true for biological agents. Although the use of biological agents and toxins in military conflicts has been a concern of military communities for many years, several recent events have increased the awareness of terrorist use of these weapons against civilian population. A Mass Casualty Biological (Toxin) Weapon (MCBTW) is any biological and toxin weapon capable of causing death or disease on a large scale, such that the military or civilian infrastructure of the state or organization being attacked is overwhelmed. A militarily significant (or terrorist) weapon is any weapon capable of affecting, directly or indirectly, that is physically or psychologically, the outcome of a military operation. Although many biological agents such as toxins and bioregulators can be used to cause diseases, there are only a few that can truly threaten civilian populations on a large scale. Bioregulators or modulators are biochemical compounds, such as peptides, that occur naturally in organisms. They are new class of weapons that can damage nervous system, alter moods, trigger psychological changes and kill. The potential military or terrorist use of bioregulators is similar to that of toxins. Some of these compounds are several hundred times more potent than traditional chemical warfare agents. Important features and military advantages of new bioregulators are novel sites of toxic action; rapid and specific effects; penetration of protective filters and equipment, and militarily effective physical incapacitation. This overview of biological agents and toxins is largely intended to help healthcare providers on all levels to make decisions in protecting general population from these agents.

Please choose payment method:

(PDF emailed within 1 workday: $29.90)

Accession: 048383598

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

Related references

Terrorism and biological toxin weapons inevitable alliance. AAAS (American Association for the Advancement of Science) Publication (88-30): 101, 1988

Toxin weapons: from World War I to jihadi terrorism. Toxin Reviews 28(4): 219-237, 2009

Terrorism and biological weapons: inevitable alliance?. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 34(1): 44-72, 1990

Microbiological, biological, and chemical weapons of warfare and terrorism. American Journal of the Medical Sciences 323(6): 326-340, 2002

Degradation of biological weapons agents in the environment: implications for terrorism response. Environmental Science and Technology 39(8): 2736-2743, 2005

Terrorism, biological weapons, and bonanzas: assessing the real threat to public health. American Journal of Public Health 91(5): 708-709, 2001

Terrorism, biological weapons, and bonanzas : Assessing the real threat to public health. American Journal of Public Health (1971) 91(5): 708-709, 2001

Die and Let Die: Exploring Links between Suicide Terrorism and Terrorist Use of Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Weapons. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 26(1): 17-35, 2003

Rethinking the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention?. Health Security 15(6): 638-641, 2017

Verifying compliance to the biological and toxin weapons convention. Critical Reviews in Microbiology 24(3): 195-218, 1998

Biological terrorism as a threat to safety An evaluation of readiness degree of medical institutions to resist the biological terrorism. Vestnik Rossiiskoi Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk 4: 38-46, 2003

Scientists and the history of biological weapons. A brief historical overview of the development of biological weapons in the twentieth century. Embo Reports 7 Spec No: S45-S49, 2006

Biological weapons. II. Smallpox, botulinum toxin, hemorrhagic fever viruses. Medizinische Monatsschrift für Pharmazeuten 26(1): 13-22, 2003

E-commerce and biological weapons nonproliferation: Online marketplaces challenge export controls to reduce the risk that rogue states or terrorists could acquire the capacity to produce biological weapons. Embo Reports 16(11): 1415-1420, 2015

Hope and ambition turn to dismay and neglect: the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention in 2001. Medicine Conflict and Survival 18(2): 161-174, 2002