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Any grade of relative overhydration is associated with long-term mortality in patients with Stages 4 and 5 non-dialysis chronic kidney disease

Any grade of relative overhydration is associated with long-term mortality in patients with Stages 4 and 5 non-dialysis chronic kidney disease

Clinical Kidney Journal 11(3): 372-376

Overhydration (OH) is associated with mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). A relative overhydration adjusted for extracellular water (OH/ECW) measured by bioimpedance >15% has shown an increased mortality risk in haemodialysis but few studies have been developed in advanced CKD. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of OH on mortality in patients with Stage 4 or 5 non-dialysis CKD. We performed a prospective study of 356 patients enrolled in 2011 and followed up until 2016. At baseline we collected general characteristics, serum inflammatory and nutrition markers, cardiovascular events (CVEs) and body composition using bioimpedance spectroscopy. During a median follow-up of 50 (24-66) months we collected mortality data. The mean creatinine was 3.5 ± 1.3 mg/dL, median proteinuria was 0.5 [interquartile range (IQR) 0.2-1.5] g/24 h, median OH was 0.6 (IQR -0.4-1.5) L and mean relative OH (OH/ECW) was 2.3 ± 0.8%. We found that 32% of patients died. The univariate Cox analysis showed an association between mortality and age, diabetes, previous CVEs, Charlson comorbidity index, low albumin and pre-albumin, high C-reactive protein (CRP), low lean tissue and high OH/ECW. Multivariate Cox analysis confirmed an association between mortality and age {exp(B) 1.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-1.3]; P = 0.001}, Charlson comorbidity index [exp(B) 1.1 (95% CI 1.0-1.2); P = 0.01], CRP [exp(B) 1.1 (95% CI 1.0-1.2); P = 0.04], OH/ECW [exp(B) 3.18 (95% CI 2.09-4.97); P = 0.031] and low lean tissue [exp(B) 0.82 (95% CI 0.69-0.98); P = 0.002]. Kaplan-Meier analysis confirmed higher mortality in patients with OH/ECW >0% (log rank 11.1; P = 0.001). Any grade of relative OH measured by OH/ECW >0% is associated with long-term mortality in patients with Stage 4 or 5 non-dialysis CKD.

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Accession: 048585391

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 29942502

DOI: 10.1093/ckj/sfy018

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