Section 49
Chapter 48,875

Effect of divalent cations on the affinity and selectivity of alpha4 integrins towards the integrin ligands vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1: Ca2+ activation of integrin alpha4beta1 confers a distinct ligand specificity

Day, E.S.; Osborn, L.; Whitty, A.

Cell Communication and Adhesion 9(4): 205-219


ISSN/ISBN: 1541-9061
PMID: 12699089
DOI: 10.1080/15419060216014
Accession: 048874524

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A microtiter plate assay measuring the binding of cells expressing integrins alpha4beta1 or alpha4beta7 to VCAM-1 and MAdCAM-1, expressed as Ig fusion proteins, was used to explore the interplay between the variables of integrin beta-chain, identity and density of ligand, and identity and concentration of activating cations. Both Mn2+ and Mg2+ supported binding of either integrin to either ligand. Ca2+ supported only the binding of alpha4beta1 to VCAM-Ig. Cation concentrations required for half-maximal binding (EC50) ranged from 0.8-280 microM for Mn2+ and 0.8-30 mM for Mg2+, being thus 2-3 logs lower for Mn2+ compared to Mg2+ independent of ligand. EC50 values for binding of alpha4beta1 to VCAM-Ig were 30-45-fold lower compared to MAdCAM-Ig, while alpha4beta7 showed an opposite 3-15-fold selectivity for MAdCAM-Ig over VCAM-Ig. The density of ligand required for adhesion via alpha4beta1 was markedly lower with Mn2+ versus Mg2+, and with VCAM-Ig versus MAdCAM-Ig. These results were interpreted in terms of a coupled equilibrium model, in which binding of activating metal ions and of integrin ligands each stabilizes activated integrin. We conclude that Mn2+ and Mg2+ bind to common regulatory sites with different affinities, producing similar activated states of the integrin. The resulting activated alpha4beta1 binds more strongly to VCAM-Ig versus MAdCAM-Ig by 30-45-fold, while similarly activated alpha4beta7 binds more strongly to MAdCAM-Ig versus VCAM-Ig by 3-15-fold. Inhibition studies showed that Ca2+ also binds to regulatory sites on both integrins. However, the Ca2+-activated state of alpha4beta1 is distinct from that achieved by Mn2+ and Mg2+, possessing increased selectivity for binding to VCAM-1 versus MAdCAM-1.

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