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Efficacy of a Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis tablet formulation, vectobac DT, for control of dengue mosquito vectors in potable water containers



Efficacy of a Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis tablet formulation, vectobac DT, for control of dengue mosquito vectors in potable water containers



Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 36(4): 879-892



VectoBac DT, a tablet formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) was evaluated for the potential control of dengue vectors in various types of potable water containers. On introduction to containers, the tablet sinks to the bottom and the Bti toxins are found concentrated at the sides and the base, while the treated water column is free of Bti toxins within 24 hours after tablet introduction. In a simulated study, earthen, HDPE and plastic containers were kept covered and laboratory-bred larvae were introduced to determine the control by the tablet. The efficacy and persistence of the tablet, with a control of > 90%, was significantly longer in earthen containers in comparison to the HDPE and plastic containers. Efficacy and persistence were observed in earthen containers for a minimum period of 5.5 months (166 days) both without water replenishment and with weekly, 50% water volume, replenishment, and for a maximum period of 2.2 months (66 days) with daily, 50% water volume, replenishment. In plastic and HDPE containers, the tablet activity had a persistence of 2.1 months (63 days) without water replenishment and 1.8 months (54 days) with weekly water replenishment. The efficacy and persistence of the VectoBac DT was significantly longer in the earthen containers, with or without regularly treated water exchange, due to the Bti toxins being embedded in the porous earthen container surfaces, which protects them from rapid degradation. Lesser toxin amounts are removed from the water column during water exchange. The efficacy of VectoBac DT was also evaluated for the control of natural infestation of Aedes larvae which were resistant to temephos at the WHO diagnostic dosage of 0.012 mg/l. The tablet significantly reduced the pupal density by 8 fold in earthen containers for 67 days and 5 fold in HDPE containers for 55 days in comparison to untreated containers (p < 0.05). However, the tablet was effective for a shorter period of 25 days post-tablet-introduction due to fungal infestation in the treated plastic containers. There is a need to determine the capacity of the VectoBac DT to reduce the dengue vector population to a threshold which will prevent dengue outbreaks in dengue endemic areas.

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Accession: 048919404

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PMID: 16295540


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