+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Evaluation of a contraction flow field on hydrodynamic damage to entomopathogenic nematodes-A biological pest control agent



Evaluation of a contraction flow field on hydrodynamic damage to entomopathogenic nematodes-A biological pest control agent



Biotechnology and Bioengineering 86(1): 96-107



Mechanized production and delivery of biological pesticides presents challenges because the biological agents must remain viable during these processes. This study evaluates the effect of flow through an abrupt contraction, where flow characteristics similar to that found within bioprocesses and spray equipment are developed, on damage to a benchmark biological pest control agent, entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs). An opposed-pistons, contraction flow device generated volumetric flow rates ranging between 8.26 cm(3)/s and 41.3 cm(3)/s. Four EPN species were evaluated: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Heterorhabditis megidis, Steinernema carpocapsae, and Steinernema glaseri. Damage was quantified by counting living and dead EPNs. Optical and cold field emission scanning electron microscope (CFE-SEM) images provided qualitative information to describe how the damage occurred. The experimental flow field was completely described using FLUENT, a computational fluid dynamics program. Local flow parameters computed in FLUENT were compared to EPN damage. The type and extent of damage varied between EPN species. Damaged Heterorhabditis spp. generally remained whole with an internal rupture located near the center of the body, while Steinernema spp. most often broke into several pieces. The fast-transient stress field generated at the entrance to the contraction caused a momentary tensile loading and then relaxation that damaged the EPNs. At high flow rates, the tensile stresses became large enough to cause failure of the EPN structural membrane. The relative elasticity of the EPN structural membrane may explain the differences in damage observed between the species. It is speculated that the internal rupture of the Heterorhabditis spp. occurred during the processes of stretching and relaxing at the contraction entrance. Appreciable damage was observed at lower average energy dissipation rates for H. bacteriophora (1.23E + 8 W/m(3)), H. megidis (1.72E + 8 W/m(3)), and S. glaseri (2.89E + 8 W/m(3)) compared to S. carpocapsae (3.70E + 8 W/m(3)). Energy dissipation rates within an equipment component should be kept below 1E + 8 W/m(3) to avoid hydrodynamic damage to EPNs. The relationship between average energy dissipation and EPN damage provides important information for future simulation efforts of actual spray equipment components.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 048993362

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 15007846

DOI: 10.1002/bit.10879


Related references

Entomopathogenic nematodes for the biological control of pest insects. Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus Poljoprivredna Znanstvena Smotra 66(3): 179-185, 2001

Field evaluation of entomopathogenic nematodes for biological control of striped flea beetle, Phyllotreta striolata Coleoptera Chrysomelidae. BioControl 58(2): 247-256, 2013

Field evaluation of entomopathogenic nematodes for the biological control of the annual bluegrass weevil, Listronotus maculicollis , in golf course turfgrass. Biocontrol Science And Technology: 1 2, 149-163, 2010

Entomopathogenic nematodes as biological control agent of ticks. 1998

Potential of entomopathogenic nematodes for biological control of selected pest insects infesting urban trees. Bulletin OILB/SROP 28(3): 3-7, 2005

A new threat to bees? Entomopathogenic nematodes used in biological pest control cause rapid mortality in Bombus terrestris. Peerj 3: E1413, 2015

Biological control of Lycoriella mali (Diptera: Sciaridae), a pest of oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus using entomopathogenic nematodes. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology 40(1): 59-67, 2001

Biological control of the weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) with entomopathogenic nematodes of the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema as well as studies on the biology of the pest. 1992

Evaluation of entomopathogenic nematodes for control of Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curcilionidae), a pest of bananas in Australia. Annals of Applied Biology 119(1): 139-145, 1991

Organic soils promote the efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes, with different foraging strategies, in the control of a major forest pest A meta-analysis of field trial data. Biological Control 65(3): 357-364, 2013

Evaluation of entomopathogenic nematodes as biological control against the banded ash clearwing borer. Journal of Environmental Horticulture 14(2): 67-71, 1996

Laboratory and field investigations using indigenous entomopathogenic nematodes for biological control of Plutella xylostella in Kenya. International Journal of Pest Management 54(4): 355-361, 2008

Entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis spp and Steinernema anomali as potential antagonists of the biological weed control agent Hylobius transversovittatus Coleoptera Curculionidae. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 58.3: 453-454, 1991