+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Evaluation of a new measurement tool for facial paralysis reconstruction



Evaluation of a new measurement tool for facial paralysis reconstruction



Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 115(3): 696-704



Evaluation of facial movement, including distance and direction, is essential for anyone interested in facial paralysis reconstruction. The authors' goal was to develop a measurement system that is simple, uses commercially available equipment, takes little time, and provides meaningful and accurate measurements. This technique is called the facial reanimation measurement system. It involves placing dots around the patient's mouth and video recording the patient performing maximal effort smiles. Using a video editing program, one frame showing the patient at rest is overlaid with a second frame showing the patient's smile. This overlaid image is imported into Adobe PhotoShop, where measurements are obtained using tools available in the program. Twenty patients were used to test interrater and intrarater reliability of the facial reanimation measurement system. The accuracy of the measurement process was tested by comparing 10 known distances and angles with those obtained using the facial reanimation measurement system. Both intrarater and interrater reliability of the distance and angle measurements are highly accurate, with intraclass correlations greater than 0.9. The facial reanimation measurement system is accurate to within 0.6 mm and 2.0 degrees when compared with a "known" distance and angle. The facial reanimation measurement system has been used to measure smile movements of more than 200 patients and has been demonstrated to be valuable for detecting changes of facial movements over time. This system is simple and economical and only requires 20 minutes to perform. Although the authors demonstrated evaluation of smile movement, the system may be used to evaluate other movements, such as mouth puckering, eye closure, and forehead elevation.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 048993678

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 15731666

DOI: 10.1097/01.prs.0000152431.55774.7e


Related references

Autonomous zone of the facial nerve. Contribution to the contralateral innervation in facial paralysis and to the demonstration of completeness of facial paralysis. Der Nervenarzt 44(12): 652-655, 1973

Dual innervation method using one-stage reconstruction with free latissimus dorsi muscle transfer for re-animation of established facial paralysis: simultaneous reinnervation of the ipsilateral masseter motor nerve and the contralateral facial nerve to improve the quality of smile and emotional facial expressions. Journal of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery 62(12): 1589-1597, 2009

Cross-facial nerve grafting as an adjunct to hypoglossal-facial nerve crossover in reanimation of early facial paralysis: clinical and electrophysiological evaluation. Annals of Plastic Surgery 46(3): 301-307, 2001

Facial paralysis reconstruction. Tidsskrift for den Norske Laegeforening 138(18):, 2018

Facial Paralysis Reconstruction. Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America 49(2): 459-473, 2016

One-stage reconstruction by dual-innervated double muscle flap transplantation with the neural interconnection between the ipsilateral masseter and contralateral facial nerve for reanimating established facial paralysis: A report of 2 cases. Microsurgery 39(5): 457-462, 2019

Methods of reconstruction in facial paralysis. Bulletin de la Societe des Sciences Medicales du Grand-Duche de Luxembourg 120(1): 31-35, 1983

"Smile" reconstruction in facial paralysis. Annals of Plastic Surgery 23(1): 56-65, 1989

Reconstruction in late facial paralysis. Zhonghua Zheng Xing Shao Shang Wai Ke Za Zhi 3(2): 148-150, 1987

Evaluation of the sensitivity of the Psychosocial Scale of Facial Appearance in peripheral facial paralysis. Codas 30(6): E20180072, 2018

The evaluation of facial paralysis a case study using the facial action coding system and electromyography. Journal of Clinical & Experimental Neuropsychology 9(3): 278-279, 1987

Evaluation of Patients Treated by Facial Nerve Decompression via Transmastoid Approach for Traumatic Facial Paralysis. Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery 149(2 Suppl.): P225-P225, 2013

Toward a universal, automated facial measurement tool in facial reanimation. Archives of Facial Plastic Surgery 14(4): 277-282, 2012

Evaluation of muscle graft using facial nerve on the affected side as a motor source in the treatment of facial paralysis. Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Hand Surgery 33(1): 47-57, 1999

Patient-Reported Outcome Measures for Soft-Tissue Facial Reconstruction: A Systematic Review and Evaluation of the Quality of Their Measurement Properties. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 143(1): 255-268, 2019