+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Field evaluation of a rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serial serologic testing algorithm for diagnosis and differentiation of HIV type 1 (HIV-1), HIV-2, and dual HIV-1-HIV-2 infections in West African pregnant women



Field evaluation of a rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serial serologic testing algorithm for diagnosis and differentiation of HIV type 1 (HIV-1), HIV-2, and dual HIV-1-HIV-2 infections in West African pregnant women



Journal of Clinical Microbiology 42(9): 4147-4153



We evaluated a two-rapid-test serial algorithm using the Determine and Genie II rapid assays, performed on-site in four peripheral laboratories during the French Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA (ANRS) 1201/1202 Ditrame Plus cohort developed for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Côte d'Ivoire. A total of 1,039 specimens were retested by two commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The following specimens were tested: 315 specimens found on-site to be infected with HIV type 1 (HIV-1), 8 specimens found on-site to be infected with HIV-2, 71 specimens found on-site to be infected with both HIV-1 and HIV-2, 40 specimens found on-site to have indeterminate results for HIV infection, and 605 specimens taken during a quality assurance program. For HIV discrimination, 99 positive serum samples (20 with HIV-1, 8 with HIV-2, and 71 with HIV-1 and HIV-2 on the basis of our rapid test algorithm) were retested by the Peptilav test, Western blot (WB) assays, and homemade monospecific ELISAs. Real-time DNA PCRs for the detection of HIV-1 and HIV-2 were performed with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 35 women diagnosed on-site with HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections. Compared to the results of the ELISAs, the sensitivities of the Determine and Genie II assays were 100% (95% lower limit [95% LL], 99.1%) and 99.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 98.2 to 99.9%), respectively. The specificities were 98.4% (95% CI, 96.9 to 99.3%) and 100% (95% LL, 99.3%), respectively. All serological assays gave concordant results for infections with single types. By contrast, for samples found to be infected with dual HIV types by the Genie II assay, dual reactivity was detected for only 37 samples (52.1%) by WB assays, 34 samples (47.9%) by the Peptilav assay, and 23 samples (32.4%) by the monospecific ELISAs. For specimens with dual reactivity by the Genie II assay, the rates of concordance between the real-time PCR assays and the serological assays were 25.7% for the Genie II assay, 82.9% for the Peptilav assay, 74.3% for WB assays, and 80% for the homemade ELISAs. Our algorithm provided high degrees of sensitivity and specificity comparable to those of ELISAs. Even if they are rare, women identified by the Genie II assay as being infected with HIV-1 and HIV-2 mostly appeared to be infected only with HIV-2.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 049080560

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 15365003

DOI: 10.1128/jcm.42.9.4147-4153.2004


Related references

Use of stored serum from Uganda for development and evaluation of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 testing algorithm involving multiple rapid immunoassays. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 43(10): 5312-5315, 2005

The evaluation of accuracy of serial rapid HIV test algorithm in the diagnosis of HIV antibodies among pregnant women in south east Nigeria. Bmc Research Notes 8: 557, 2015

Use of rapid and conventional testing technologies for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 serologic screening in a rural Kenyan reference laboratory. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 42(8): 3850-3852, 2004

Seroprevalence of syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus type-1, and hepatitis B virus infections among pregnant women in Turkey. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics: the Official Organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 66(2): 171-172, 1999

A heteroduplex assay for the rapid detection of dual Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 infections. Journal of Virological Methods 149(1): 20-27, 2008

Comparison of the avidity index method and the serologic testing algorithm for recent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroconversion, two methods using a single serum sample for identification of recent HIV infections. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 43(12): 6197-6199, 2005

Field evaluation of a combination of monospecific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for type-specific diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 infections in HIV-seropositive persons in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 36(1): 123-127, 1998

Field evaluation of a dual rapid Human Immunodeficiency Virus and treponemal syphilis rapid test in community-based clinics in Los Angeles and New York. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease 93(4): 325-328, 2019

High prevalence of asymptomatic sexually transmitted infections among human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant women in a low-income South African community. International Journal of Std and Aids 29(4): 324-333, 2018

Transfer and evaluation of an automated, low-cost real-time reverse transcription-PCR test for diagnosis and monitoring of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in a West African resource-limited setting. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 43(6): 2709-2717, 2005

Serological markers of hepatitis B, C, and E viruses and human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infections in pregnant women in Bali, Indonesia. Journal of Medical Virology 75(4): 499-503, 2005

A field evaluation of a rapid dual immunoassay for human immunodeficiency virus and syphilis antibodies, Hanoi, Vietnam. International Journal of Std and Aids 30(2): 173-180, 2019

Serosurvey of human immunodeficiency virus infection in parturients. Implications for human immunodeficiency virus testing programs of pregnant women. JAMA 258(19): 2701-2703, 1987

Prevalence and risk determinants of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in West African female prostitutes. American Journal of Epidemiology 136(7): 895-907, 1992

Co-infections associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in pregnant women from southern Brazil: high rate of intraepithelial cervical lesions. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 107(2): 205-210, 2012