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Integration of microscopy and serodiagnostic tests to screen for active tuberculosis

Integration of microscopy and serodiagnostic tests to screen for active tuberculosis

International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 9(10): 1120-1126

University of California San Diego Medical Center, USA. To create a simple screening strategy for tuberculosis (TB) that includes antibody detection assays to improve the accuracy of microscopic examination of sputum for acid-fast bacilli (AFB smear). Serum samples were obtained from 190 patients suspected of having active TB. TB diagnosis was established by Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture. HIV status was determined by commercial serologic tests. IgG antibody levels were measured by ELISA using purified M. tuberculosis antigens. Data from 130 randomly selected patients were used to develop a screening strategy; data from the remaining 60 patients were used for validation. AFB smear had 70% sensitivity and 88% specificity. In algorithms integrating single or multi-antigen ELISA with AFB smear and HIV results, the sensitivity improved over each test alone. The algorithm that included a four-antigen ELISA (38 kDa antigen, lipoarabinomannan, MPT-64 and glutamine synthase) had a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 76%. Compared to AFB smear, the sensitivity of the algorithm was significantly higher, while the specificity was not statistically different. This study demonstrates that a screening strategy can be created by integrating multi-antigen ELISA with AFB smear and HIV testing.

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Accession: 049370539

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PMID: 16229223

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