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Intrafamilial phenotype variability in patients with Gitelman syndrome having the same mutations in their thiazide-sensitive sodium/chloride cotransporter



Intrafamilial phenotype variability in patients with Gitelman syndrome having the same mutations in their thiazide-sensitive sodium/chloride cotransporter



American Journal of Kidney Diseases 43(2): 304-312



Gitelman syndrome (GS) most often results from mutations in the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC). Although the severity of symptoms may vary in patients who have the same mutations, a markedly different clinical presentation in family members with identical mutations is truly rare. Five patients (3 women and 2 men) belonging to 2 unrelated Chinese families were investigated. All had chronic hypokalemia, renal potassium (K+) wasting, metabolic alkalosis, and normal blood pressure. Direct sequencing of both the NCC and CLCNKB genes were performed. The probands in each family were men. They had very severe hypokalemia and were symptomatic with episodes of paralysis. They had normal plasma magnesium concentrations, normal calcium excretion rates, and impaired maximal urine concentrating ability. In contrast, female family members were asymptomatic. They had laboratory findings typical of GS--less severe hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypocalciuria, and intact maximal renal concentrating ability. Nevertheless, all patients had the same novel pair of NCC mutations and no mutations detected in CLCNKB. Differences in sex may help explain the different clinical presentations in these 2 Chinese families with novel NCC mutations. Hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria are not always present in patients with GS.

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Accession: 049391436

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 14750096

DOI: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2003.10.018


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