Promoting absorption of drugs in humans using medium-chain fatty acid-based solid dosage forms: GIPET

Leonard, T.W.; Lynch, J.; McKenna, M.J.; Brayden, D.J.

Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 3(5): 685-692


ISSN/ISBN: 1742-5247
PMID: 16948563
DOI: 10.1517/17425247.3.5.685
Accession: 050043991

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One of the most important and challenging goals in drug delivery is overcoming the poor oral absorption of high-value therapeutics that include peptides. Gastrointestinal Permeation Enhancement Technology (GIPET) attempts to address this question by safely delivering drugs across the small intestine in therapeutically relevant concentrations. GIPET is based primarily on promoting drug absorption through the use of medium-chain fatty acids, medium-chain fatty acid derivatives and microemulsion systems based on medium-chain fatty acid glycerides formulated in enteric-coated tablets or capsules. Importantly, these excipients are generally regarded as safe and the systems are formulated in such a way that there is no change in chemical composition of the active ingredient. More than 300 volunteers have been administered GIPET formulations in 16 Phase I studies of 6 separate drugs comprising both single- and repeat-dosing regimes. Oral bioavailability of alendronate, desmopressin and low-molecular-weight heparin in humans was increased using GIPET formulations compared with unformulated controls. GIPET was well tolerated by human subjects. Using fluxes of markers of epithelial permeability, the effects of GIPET on the human intestine were shown to be rapid, short-lived and reversible in vivo. These data suggest that GIPET formulations have genuine potential as a platform technology for safe and effective oral drug delivery of a wide range of poorly permeable drugs.