A six-year epidemiological surveillance study in Split-Dalmatia County, Croatia: urban versus rural differences in human campylobacteriosis incidence
Carev, M.; Tonkić, M.; Boban, Nša.
International Journal of Environmental Health Research 28(4): 407-418
ISSN/ISBN: 0960-3123 PMID: 29869522 DOI: 10.1080/09603123.2018.1481497
Data from population-based laboratory surveillance were used to examine the epidemiological pattern of campylobacteriosis in a sentinel site, Split-Dalmatia County (SDC),Croatia, from 2007 to 2012, and to evaluate the association between disease incidence and demographic, geographical, climatic, agricultural, and microbiological factors. A total of 2658 laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter infections were recorded. Overall mean incidence was 96/100,000, ranging from 61/100,000 in rural to 131/100,000 in urban areas; rates were highest in the age group 0-4 years. Overall mean and age- and sex-specific incidences were significantly higher in urban versus rural areas (p < 0.01). The number of infections peaked in early summer, and was correlated with higher average monthly temperature (r = 0.58) and lower humidity (r = - 0.27), but not with precipitation. Incidence was not associated with agricultural activities. A distinct campylobacteriosis pattern with consistently higher urban versus rural incidence was observed, which may help formulate further preventive measures.