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The role of aldosterone-antagonists in the treatment of congestive heart failure

The role of aldosterone-antagonists in the treatment of congestive heart failure

Orvosi Hetilap 146(14): 645-648

The role of aldosterone-antagonists in the treatment of congestive heart failure. Despite the advances of the treatment of congestive heart failure, nearly half of the patients diagnosed with this disease five years ago are alive today. Experimental and human studies have demonstrated, that under special pathologic condition, the heart extracts aldosterone, and aldosterone extraction in the heart stimulates increased collagen turnover culminating in ventricular remodeling. Aldosterone blockade has been shown to be effective in reducing total mortality and hospitalization for heart failure in patients with systolic left ventricular dysfunction due to chronic heart failure (RALES study with spironolactone) and in patients with systolic left ventricular dysfunction post acute myocardial infarction (EPHESUS study with eplerenone). These clinical studies have shown that mineralocorticoid receptor activation remains important despite the use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocking agent and a beta blocker. In the ACC/AHA (and in the European and Hungarian) guidelines for the evolution and management of chronic heart failure, the indication of spironolactone was defined of Class Ila, Level of Evidence: B in CHF of stage C. The eplerenone (in US: INSPRA) was approved for the management of CHF patients after myocardial infarction with ejection fraction < 40%. Eplerenone, compared with spironolactone, is associated with a lower incidence of gynecomastia and other sex hormone-related adverse effect (breast pain, menstrual abnormalities). The spironolactone should not be used in patients with a creatinine above 220 mikromol/l. Despite the guidelines recommendation, spironolactone has been widely used in patients without consideration of their functional class or ejection fraction, without optimization of background treatment with ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers.

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Accession: 050719487

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PMID: 15889538

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