+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Two- and three-dimensional sonographic assessment of the fetal face. 2. Analysis of cleft lip, alveolus and palate



Two- and three-dimensional sonographic assessment of the fetal face. 2. Analysis of cleft lip, alveolus and palate



Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 24(4): 402-411



To describe the sonographic appearance of cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL +/- P) using two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound imaging. Also, to evaluate the accuracy of ultrasound to delineate with precision the bony extent of facial clefts, i.e. to differentiate clefts limited to the lips, or extending to the alveolus/premaxilla or the secondary palate. This was a retrospective study based on the examination of fetuses diagnosed with an isolated CL +/- P. Cases included were either discovered at systematic screening or referred for further investigation. Clefts were characterized by their precise anatomical location and extent. The defect could include a cleft lip (CL), a cleft alveolus (CA), or a cleft of the secondary palate (CSP). We analyzed 96 cases of CL +/- P. The mean gestational age at examination was 28.2 +/- 4.1 weeks. The sonographic appearance of CL, CA, and CSP was depicted. Strict concordance of the sonographic report with the anatomical defect was present in 84 cases (87.5%). In eight cases, the severity of the cleft was underestimated: three cases of CA, four of CA + CSP and one of CSP were missed. In four cases, the cleft was overestimated as CA was incorrectly suspected. Systematic screening with sonography to detect prenatally CL +/- P requires the imaging of at least the mid-sagittal and the anterior coronal 'nose-mouth' views. Once the presence of a facial cleft is suspected, the three reference orthogonal planes are imaged in order to characterize the anatomical defect, and for each plane, the serial scans are thoroughly examined. This protocol allows precise delineation of the defect. Inclusion of 3D and 4D ultrasound imaging in the examination protocol allows easier and more rapid screening and more precise evaluation of the different cleft constituents.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 050873069

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 15343594

DOI: 10.1002/uog.1718


Related references

Two- and Three-Dimensional Sonographic Assessment of the Fetal Face. 1. A Systematic Analysis of the Normal Face. Ultrasound Quarterly 20(3): 142-143, 2004

Two- and three-dimensional sonographic assessment of the fetal face. 1. A systematic analysis of the normal face. Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 23(3): 224-231, 2004

Three-dimensional sonographic imaging of fetal bilateral cleft lip and palate in the first trimester. Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 34(1): 119-120, 2009

Professional socialization of patients with cleft lip, cleft lip and alveolus, cleft lip, alveolus and palate as well as their fathers. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Mund- Kiefer- und Gesichts-Chirurgie 9(2): 113-125, 1985

Sonographic evaluation of fetal clefts of the lip, alveolus and palate. Zeitschrift für Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie 216(2): 63-72, 2012

Periodontal Status Among Patients With Cleft Lip (CL), Cleft Palate (CP) and Cleft Lip, Alveolus and Palate (CLAP) In Chennai, India. A Comparative Study. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research 9(3): Zc53-Zc55, 2015

Comparison of periodontal status among patients with cleft lip, cleft palate, and cleft lip along with a cleft in palate and alveolus. Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology 14(3): 168-172, 2010

Concomitant developmental anomalies of the face in patients with clefts of lip (alveolus, and palate) or cleft palates. Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Hand Surgery 21(1): 27-30, 1987

Sonographic assessment of normal fetal palate using three-dimensional imaging: a new technique. Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 29(2): 159-165, 2007

Sonographic assessment of fetal secondary palate between 12 and 16 weeks of gestation using three-dimensional ultrasound. Prenatal Diagnosis 33(13): 1256-1259, 2013

OP02.14: Fetal palate: a new direct sonographic sign of normal, cleft and ogival palate, with 2D and 3D. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology 28(4): 425-425, 2006

Study on the shape of the alveolar ridge and tooth position after cleft lip and palate surgery in children with unilateral cleft lip alveolus and palate 1. longitudinal study from before operation on cleft lip to the time of completion of permanent dentition. Shikoku Acta Medica 41(3): 193-204, 1985

Three-dimensional ultrasound diagnosis of cleft palate: 'reverse face', 'flipped face' or 'oblique face'--which method is best?. Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 33(4): 399-406, 2009

Centre-based statistics of cleft lip with/without alveolus and palate as well as cleft palate only patients in Aden, Yemen. Journal of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery 42(4): 297-304, 2014

Study on the shape of the alveolar ridge and tooth position after cleft lip and palate surgery in children with unilateral cleft lip alveolus and palate 2. chronological study from the time after cleft palate surgery to the time of completion of permanent dentition. Shikoku Acta Medica 41(3): 205-214, 1985