+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Urinary cotinine and nicotine metabolites measurement



Urinary cotinine and nicotine metabolites measurement



Annales de Biologie Clinique 63(4): 397-409



According to the recent regulations (Circulaire DGS/DH du 3 avril 2000), tobacco dependence must be determined by the measurement of urine nicotine metabolites. Various assay methods are presently available. They were tested in order to evaluate their analytical performances and to determine how they can be used for the clinical management of smoking cessation. Urine samples from a single void (n = 97) were obtained from active and abstinent smokers (with or without nicotine substitutive therapy). They were all analyzed by the various methods. Cotinine concentration was measured in six laboratories, using HPLC combined with UV detection according to a standardized procedure (Ann Biol Clin 2002 : 60 : 263-72). Immunoassay methods were also tested and the values obtained from urine samples were compared to urine cotinine measured by HPLC-UV. HPLC-UV: Urinary cotinine varied in a range from undetectable to 4 mg/L. An interlaboratory comparison was performed according to the Valtec procedure (calculation of equation of Deming, chart of differences). There was a good accordance between laboratories. Cotinine concentration was only slightly influenced by fluid intake, as shown by a poorly significant correlation between cotinine and creatinine (r = 0.23, p = 0.05). Homogeneous immunoassays: The two homogeneous immunoassays (Cotinine) from Thermo Electron and Cotinine Enzyme Immunoassay commercialized by Microgenics were highly correlated (r = 0.97). The correlation was not so strong with HPLC-UV (r = 0.86). Firstly, values were found higher with immunoassays because antibodies crossreact with 3-hydroxycotinine. Secondly, the ratio of immunoassays values to HPLC-UV values varied according to urine specimens. Finally, there was a highly significant correlation with urine creatinine (r = 0.40, p = 0.0001), thus indicating the influence of fluid intake. Heterogeneous immunoassay: The kit Metabolites of Nicotine commercialized by DPC France was tested on the analyzer Immulite, using a procedure specifically established for urine. Antibodies revealed a large spectrum of nicotine metabolites. Therefore, the values were much higher than those observed for the same urine samples with homogeneous immunoassays. HPLC-UV can be recommended for the measurement of urinary cotinine, as it was shown a good accordance between laboratories. The low detection limit is of interest for the diagnosis of Environmental Tobacco Smoking. Homogeneous immunoassays can be easily used for routine analysis as they can be performed directly on urine specimen. The results must be interpreted according to cut-off values specifically established according to homogeneous or heterogeneous immunoassays. Variability induced by fluid intake must be taken into account. The interest of the heterogeneous immunoassay needs to be confirmed for the diagnosis of Environmental Tobacco Smoking.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 1 workday: $29.90)

Accession: 050899416

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 16061438


Related references

A comparison of nicotine dose estimates in smokers between filter analysis, salivary cotinine, and urinary excretion of nicotine metabolites. Psychopharmacology 189(3): 345-354, 2006

Biotransformation of primary nicotine metabolites. II. Metabolism of [3H]-S-(-)-cotinine in the guinea pig: determination of in vivo urinary metabolites by high-performance liquid-radiochromatography. Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems 17(7): 785-792, 1987

Biotransformation of primary nicotine metabolites ii. metabolism tritiated s levo cotinine in the guinea pig determination of in vivo urinary metabolites by high performance liquid radiochromatography. Xenobiotica 17(7): 785-792, 1987

Radio immunoassays for nicotine and its metabolites cotinine and cotinine n oxide. Federation Proceedings 32(3 Part 1): 511, 1973

Biomonitoring of urinary cotinine concentrations associated with plasma levels of nicotine metabolites after daily cigarette smoking in a male Japanese population. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 7(7): 2953-2964, 2010

Simultaneous measurement of urinary total nicotine and cotinine as biomarkers of active and passive smoking among Japanese individuals. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine 18(3): 244-250, 2013

Metabolites of nicotine in rat brain after peripheral nicotine administration. Cotinine, nornicotine, and norcotinine. Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals 25(1): 47-54, 1997

Measurement of urinary Benzo[a]pyrene tetrols and their relationship to other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites and cotinine in humans. Chemosphere 189: 365-372, 2017

Simultaneous determination of nicotine, cotinine and five additional nicotine metabolites in the urine of smokers using pre-column derivatisation and high-performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Chromatography 419: 375-380, 1987

Nicotine Dependence and Urinary Nicotine, Cotinine and Hydroxycotinine Levels in Daily Smokers. Nicotine and Tobacco Research 18(9): 1813-1819, 2016

Nicotine and its metabolites. Radioimmunoassays for nicotine and cotinine. Biochemistry 12(24): 5025-5030, 1973

Urine collection for nicotine and cotinine measurement in studies on nicotine addicts. Pathologie-Biologie 42(2): 191-196, 1994

High performance liquid chromatographic determination of nicotine and cotinine in plasma and nicotine and cotinine, simultaneously, in urine. Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology 11(3): 179-185, 1989

High dose transdermal nicotine therapy for heavy smokers: Safety, tolerability and measurement of nicotine and cotinine levels. Psychopharmacology 122(3): 215-222, 1995

Use of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic pb pk nicotine cotinine model to assess the influence of nicotine on the distribution of cotinine in man. FASEB Journal 5(6): A1568, 1991