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Water quality cuts down the chronic inflammatory risk: how to obtain it and keep it over time

Water quality cuts down the chronic inflammatory risk: how to obtain it and keep it over time

Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Societa Italiana di Nefrologia 22(Suppl 31): S70-S74

ISSN/ISBN: 0393-5590

PMID: 15786406

Every week, approximately 400 liters of water used for dialysate production come into direct contact, through the semi-permeable membrane of the dialyzer, with the dialysis patient's blood stream. Therefore, submitting municipal water to an adequate depuration process before its use for dialysis becomes necessary. Problems related to the implementation, updating and management of a dialysis water treatment system are analyzed. The results of the most recent multicenter studies on dialysis fluids quality are also reviewed. The best approach to plan, implement and manage a dialysis water treatment system, first, consists of defining the standards of chemical and microbiological water quality. The most diffused and commonly accepted standards are those recommended by the Association for Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) and the European Pharmacopea (EP), which allow a maximum bacterial growth of, respectively, 200 CFU/ml and 100 CFU/mL and a maximum endotoxin concentration of 2 IU/mL and 0.25 IU/mL. A modern dialysis water treatment system provides a final purification process, mainly by reverse osmosis (RO), together with different pre-treatment levels and a hydraulic distribution circuit. Therefore, as RO produces water of optimal chemical and microbial quality, all efforts in the dialysis unit must be aimed at keeping this quality as constant as possible over time, by carrying out effective maintenance strategies and system disinfection. Nevertheless, several multicenter studies reported that 7-35% of water samples exceed a bacterial growth of 200 CFU/mL and that 44% of them display endotoxin concentrations >5 IU/mL. The results of multicenter studies indicate that the microbial quality of dialysis fluids is, unfortunately, still an often neglected problem. Evidence of a possible relationship between dialysis fluid contamination and patient morbidity, as well as the availability of systems and machines allowing purity levels that were unimaginable only a few years ago, must be a stimulus for modifying clinical practices and starting the improvement processes aimed at maximally reducing the risk of microbial contamination in the dialysis water, as already done with chemical contamination.

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Accession: 050963631

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