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A double tyrosine motif in the cardiac sodium channel domain III-IV linker couples calcium-dependent calmodulin binding to inactivation gating



A double tyrosine motif in the cardiac sodium channel domain III-IV linker couples calcium-dependent calmodulin binding to inactivation gating



Journal of Biological Chemistry 284(48): 33265-33274



Voltage-gated sodium channels maintain the electrical cadence and stability of neurons and muscle cells by selectively controlling the transmembrane passage of their namesake ion. The degree to which these channels contribute to cellular excitability can be managed therapeutically or fine-tuned by endogenous ligands. Intracellular calcium, for instance, modulates sodium channel inactivation, the process by which sodium conductance is negatively regulated. We explored the molecular basis for this effect by investigating the interaction between the ubiquitous calcium binding protein calmodulin (CaM) and the putative sodium channel inactivation gate composed of the cytosolic linker between homologous channel domains III and IV (DIII-IV). Experiments using isothermal titration calorimetry show that CaM binds to a novel double tyrosine motif in the center of the DIII-IV linker in a calcium-dependent manner, N-terminal to a region previously reported to be a CaM binding site. An alanine scan of aromatic residues in recombinant DIII-DIV linker peptides shows that whereas multiple side chains contribute to CaM binding, two tyrosines (Tyr(1494) and Tyr(1495)) play a crucial role in binding the CaM C-lobe. The functional relevance of these observations was then ascertained through electrophysiological measurement of sodium channel inactivation gating in the presence and absence of calcium. Experiments on patch-clamped transfected tsA201 cells show that only the Y1494A mutation of the five sites tested renders sodium channel steady-state inactivation insensitive to cytosolic calcium. The results demonstrate that calcium-dependent calmodulin binding to the sodium channel inactivation gate double tyrosine motif is required for calcium regulation of the cardiac sodium channel.

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Accession: 051129312

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 19808664

DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M109.052910


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