+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

A more generalizable method to evaluate changes in health care costs with changes in health risks among employers of all sizes



A more generalizable method to evaluate changes in health care costs with changes in health risks among employers of all sizes



Population Health Management 17(5): 297-305



The objective of this study was to estimate the association between changes in health care expenditures relative to changes in health risk status for employers of all sizes. Repeat health risk assessments (HRAs) were obtained from 50,005 employees and spouses with 2 years of health plan enrollment, and from 37,559 employees and spouses with 3 years of enrollment in employer-sponsored medical coverage. Changes in health care expenditures were measured from the year before completion of the first HRA to the years before and after the completion of the second HRA. Propensity score weighting was used to adjust for those who did not repeat the HRA so results could be extrapolated to the larger population. Propensity score weighted multiple regression analyses were used to estimate the relationship between changes in health care expenditures with changes in risk status for 9 risk categories. Significantly higher health care expenditures were associated with those who moved from low risk to medium or high risk, compared to those who remained low risk. Expenditure reductions estimated for those who improved their health status from high risk to medium or low risk were not statistically significant. This study is unique because of its large sample size, its use of data from a wide range of employer sizes, and its efforts to extend generalizability to those who did not complete both HRAs. These results demonstrate that the potential for short-term health care savings may be greater for programs that help maintain low risk than for programs focused on risk reduction.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 051166707

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 24892950

DOI: 10.1089/pop.2013.0103


Related references

A more generalizable method to evaluate the association between commonly reported health risks and health care expenditures among employers of all sizes. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 55(10): 1179-1185, 2013

Employers may take more hits. Surveys show managed-care costs will rise, health plans will pass increases to employers. Modern Healthcare 29(32): 68, 1999

Corporate health risk management: employers' newest tool to reduce health care costs. Hospital Entrepreneurs' Newsletter 4(1): 1 4-1 6, 1988

Employers battle health care costs. Business Insurance 14(22): 1 21-2, 1980

Employers ... companies' health care costs. Hospitals & Health Networks 71(8): 12-13, 1997

What employers can do to control health care costs. Employee Benefit Plan Review 31(12): 64-64, 1977

Rising health care costs: employers respond. Healthplan 43(3): 34-36, 2002

How large employers control health care costs. Southern Hospitals 56(1): 25-26, 1987

A 3-year assessment of the effects of a self-administered health risk assessment on health care utilization, costs, and health risks. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 56(12): 1284-1290, 2014

Estimating the return-on-investment from changes in employee health risks on the Dow Chemical Company's health care costs. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 47(8): 759-768, 2005

The employers' perspective on health care costs and the rise in consumerism. American Journal of Gastroenterology 96(8 Suppl): S70-S73, 2001

Proactive purchasers: 'The jig is up,' say some employers, as they manage health care costs. Hospitals and Health Networks 88(8): 18, 2014

Insurance. Employers continue to shift health care costs onto workers. Hospitals and Health Networks 85(10): 22, 2011

Employers return to wellness to stem rising health care costs. Disease Management Advisor 10(4): 43-6, 37, 2004

The Portion of Health Care Costs Associated With Lifestyle-Related Modifiable Health Risks Based on a Sample of 223,461 Employees in Seven Industries: The UM-HMRC Study. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 57(12): 1284-1290, 2015