+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

ABCD classification system: a novel classification for subaxial cervical spine injuries



ABCD classification system: a novel classification for subaxial cervical spine injuries



Spine 39(9): 707-714



The classification system was derived through a retrospective analysis of 73 consecutive cases of subaxial cervical spine injury as well as thorough literature review. To define a new classification system for subaxial cervical spine injuries. There exist several methods to classify subaxial cervical spine injuries but no single system has emerged as clearly superior to the others. On the basis of a 2-column anatomical model, the first part of the proposed classification is an anatomical description of the injury. It delivers the information whether the injury is bony, ligamentous, or a combined one. The first 4 alphabetical letters have been used for simplicity. Each column is represented by an alphabetical letter from A to D. Each letter has a radiological meaning (A = Absent injury, B = Bony lesion, C = Combined bony and ligamentous, D = Disc or ligamentous injury).The second part of the classification is represented by 3 modifiers. These are the neurological status of the patient (N), the degree of spinal canal stenosis (S), and the degree of instability (I). For simplicity, each modifier was graded in an ascending pattern of severity from zero to 2. The last part is optional and denotes which radiological examination has been used to define the injury type. The new ABCD classification was applicable for all patients. The most common type was anterior ligamentous and posterior combined injury "DC" (37.9%), followed by "DD" injury in 12% of the cases. Through this work a new classification for cervical spine injuries is proposed. The aim is to establish criteria for a common language in description of cervical injuries aiming for simplification, especially for junior residents. Each letter and each sign has a meaning to deliver the largest amount of information. Both the radiological as well as the clinical data are represented in this scheme. However, further evaluation of this classification is needed. 3.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 051289512

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 24503686

DOI: 10.1097/brs.0000000000000257


Related references

Introduction and interpretation of abcd classification system for subaxial cervical spine injury. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 28(11): 1441-1444, 2015

Subaxial cervical spine trauma classification: the Subaxial Injury Classification system and case examples. Neurosurgical Focus 25(5): E8, 2008

Limitation of previous Allen classification and subaxial cervical spine injury classification (SLIC) system in distractive-extension injury of cervical spine: proposal of modified classification system. European Spine Journal 25(1): 74-79, 2016

Classification and Management of Pediatric Subaxial Cervical Spine Injuries. Neurosurgery Clinics of North America 28(1): 91, 2017

The surgical approach to subaxial cervical spine injuries: an evidence-based algorithm based on the SLIC classification system. Spine 32(23): 2620-2629, 2007

The surgical approach to subaxial cervical spine injuries: an evidence-based algorithm based on the SLIC classification system. Spine 33(19): 2124; Author Reply 2124-5, 2008

AOSpine subaxial cervical spine injury classification system. European Spine Journal 25(7): 2173-2184, 2016

The Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification System: an external agreement validation study. Spine Journal 13(9): 1055-1063, 2013

The development and evaluation of the subaxial injury classification scoring system for cervical spine trauma. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 469(3): 723-731, 2011

Cervical injuries scored according to the Subaxial Injury Classification system: An analysis of the literature. Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine 5(2): 65-70, 2014

An Independent Inter- and Intraobserver Agreement Evaluation of the AOSpine Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification System. Spine 42(5): 298-303, 2017

Predictors of Failure of Nonoperative Management Following Subaxial Spine Trauma and Creation of Modified Subaxial Injury Classification System. World Neurosurgery 122: E1359-E1364, 2019

Subaxial Injury Classification (SLIC) Scoring System Treatment Recommendations for Cervical Spine Trauma: Retrospective Review of 193 Patients. Spine Journal 14(11): S6-S7, 2014

The subaxial cervical spine injury classification system: a novel approach to recognize the importance of morphology, neurology, and integrity of the disco-ligamentous complex. Spine 32(21): 2365-2374, 2007

Subaxial cervical spine injury classification system: is it most appropriate for classifying cervical injury?. Neural Regeneration Research 10(9): 1416-1417, 2015