+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Adaptations of Trypanosoma brucei to gradual loss of kinetoplast DNA: Trypanosoma equiperdum and Trypanosoma evansi are petite mutants of T. brucei



Adaptations of Trypanosoma brucei to gradual loss of kinetoplast DNA: Trypanosoma equiperdum and Trypanosoma evansi are petite mutants of T. brucei



Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105(6): 1999-2004



Trypanosoma brucei is a kinetoplastid flagellate, the agent of human sleeping sickness and ruminant nagana in Africa. Kinetoplastid flagellates contain their eponym kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), consisting of two types of interlocked circular DNA molecules: scores of maxicircles and thousands of minicircles. Maxicircles have typical mitochondrial genes, most of which are translatable only after RNA editing. Minicircles encode guide RNAs, required for decrypting the maxicircle transcripts. The life cycle of T. brucei involves a bloodstream stage (BS) in vertebrates and a procyclic stage (PS) in the tsetse fly vector. Partial [dyskinetoplastidy (Dk)] or total [akinetoplastidy (Ak)] loss of kDNA locks the trypanosome in the EIS form. Transmission between vertebrates becomes mechanical without PS and tsetse mediation, allowing the parasite to spread outside the African tsetse belt. Trypanosoma equiperdum and Trypanosoma evansi are agents of dourine and surra, diseases of horses, camels, and water buffaloes. We have characterized representative strains of T. equiperdum and T. evansi by numerous molecular and classical parasitological approaches. We show that both species are actually strains of T. brucei, which lost part (Dk) or all (Ak) of their kDNA. These trypanosomes are not monophyletic clades and do not qualify for species status. They should be considered two subspecies, respectively T. brucei equiperdum and T. brucei evansi, which spontaneously arose recently. Dk/Ak trypanosomes may potentially emerge repeatedly from T brucei.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 051368176

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 18245376

DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0711799105


Related references

Cultivation in a semi defined medium of animal infective forms of trypanosoma brucei trypanosoma equiperdum trypanosoma evansi trypanosoma rhodesiense and trypanosoma gambiense. EMBO (European Molecular Biology Organization) Journal 4(5): 1273-1278, 1985

A comparative study of the proteolytic enzymes of trypanosoma brucei trypanosoma equiperdum trypanosoma evansi trypanosoma vivax leishmania tarentolae and crithidia fasciculata. Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 9(2): 161-180, 1983

Quantitation of genetic differences between trypanosoma brucei gambiense trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and trypanosoma brucei brucei by restriction enzyme analysis of kinetoplast dna. Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 3(2): 117-131, 1981

Identification of Trypanosoma evansi, Trypanosoma equiperdum and Trypanosoma brucei brucei using repetitive DNA probes. Veterinary Parasitology 53(3-4): 197-208, 1994

Further evidence from SSCP and ITS DNA sequencing support Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma equiperdum as subspecies or even strains of Trypanosoma brucei. Infection Genetics and Evolution 41: 56-62, 2016

Identification of Trypanosoma evansi, Trypanosoma equiperdum and Trypanosoma brucei using repetitive DNA probes. Veterinary Parasitology 53(3-4): 197-208, 1994

Doubts about Trypanosoma equiperdum strains classed as Trypanosoma brucei or Trypanosoma evansi. Trends in Parasitology 22(2): 55-6; Author Reply 58-9, 2006

The separation of trypanosomes from blood on inst anion exchange columns abstract trypanosoma brucei infected rat trypanosoma rhodesiense trypanosoma evansi trypanosoma congolense trypanosoma vivax trypanosoma lewisi. Transactions Of The Royal Society Of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene: 4-5, 1968

Trypanosoma gambiense trypanosoma rhodesiense trypanosoma brucei trypanosoma equiperdum and trypanosoma lewisi purification and properties of phospho hexose isomerase. Experimental Parasitology 25(1-3): 101-106, 1969

A Trypanosoma brucei minicircle encodes the same gRNAs as do minicircles of Trypanosoma equiperdum ATCC 30019 and Trypanosoma evansi type-A minicircles. Nucleic Acids Research 21(12): 2951, 1993

Studies in animal trypanosomiases. I. Nitrogen and mineral metabolic disturbances induced by Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma brucei. II. Disturbances produced in the plasma proteins by Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma brucei. III. The effects of Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma brucei on blood urea. Jour Comp Path And Therap 51(1): 23-35, 36-41, 42-45, 1938

Feeder layer free in vitro assay for screening antitrypanosomal compounds against trypanosoma brucei brucei and trypanosoma brucei evansi. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy 33(6): 881-885, 1989

PCR approach for the detection of Trypanosoma brucei and T. equiperdum and their differentiation from T. evansi based on maxicircle kinetoplast DNA. Molecular and Cellular Probes 21(1): 1-7, 2007

In vitro tryptophan catabolism by trypanosoma brucei gambiense trypanosoma equiperdum trypanosoma lewisi and trypanosoma musculi. Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology B 69(3): 617-620, 1981

Evaluation of an arsenical compound rm 110 mel cy cymelarsan against susceptible and drug resistant trypanosoma brucei brucei and trypanosoma brucei evansi. Tropical Medicine & Parasitology 41(2): 208-212, 1990