+ Site Statistics
References:
54,258,434
Abstracts:
29,560,870
PMIDs:
28,072,757
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

All Smiles are Not Created Equal: Morphology and Timing of Smiles Perceived as Amused, Polite, and Embarrassed/Nervous



All Smiles are Not Created Equal: Morphology and Timing of Smiles Perceived as Amused, Polite, and Embarrassed/Nervous



Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 33(1): 17-34



We investigated the correspondence between perceived meanings of smiles and their morphological and dynamic characteristics. Morphological characteristics included co-activation of Orbicularis oculi (AU 6), smile controls, mouth opening, amplitude, and asymmetry of amplitude. Dynamic characteristics included duration, onset and offset velocity, asymmetry of velocity, and head movements. Smile characteristics were measured using the Facial Action Coding System (Ekman, Friesen, & Hager, 2002) and Automated Facial Image Analysis (Cohn & Kanade, 2007). Observers judged 122 smiles as amused, embarrassed, nervous, polite, or other. Fifty-three smiles met criteria for classification as perceived amused, embarrassed/nervous, or polite. In comparison with perceived polite, perceived amused more often included AU 6, open mouth, smile controls, larger amplitude, larger maximum onset and offset velocity, and longer duration. In comparison with perceived embarrassed/nervous, perceived amused more often included AU 6, lower maximum offset velocity, and smaller forward head pitch. In comparison with perceived polite, perceived embarrassed more often included mouth opening and smile controls, larger amplitude, and greater forward head pitch. Occurrence of the AU 6 in perceived embarrassed/nervous and polite smiles questions the assumption that AU 6 with a smile is sufficient to communicate felt enjoyment. By comparing three perceptually distinct types of smiles, we found that perceived smile meanings were related to specific variation in smile morphological and dynamic characteristics.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 051432319

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 19554208

DOI: 10.1007/s10919-008-0059-5


Related references

The value of genuine and polite smiles. Emotion 11(1): 169-174, 2011

Towards a Universal SMILES representation - A standard method to generate canonical SMILES based on the InChI. Journal of Cheminformatics 4(1): 22, 2012

Samuel Smiles and his Surroundings Aileen Smiles. London, Robert Hale Ltd., 1956. Pp. 206 Illustrated 18s. Medical History 1(01): 84-85, 1957

Can Duchenne smiles be feigned? New evidence on felt and false smiles. Emotion 9(6): 807-820, 2010

Leaving us with fond memories, smiles, SMILES and, alas, tears: a tribute to David Weininger, 1952-2016. Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design 32(2): 313-319, 2018

SMILES-based QSAR approaches for carcinogenicity and anticancer activity: comparison of correlation weights for identical SMILES attributes. Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry 11(10): 974-982, 2012

Smiles-based Qsar Approaches for Carcinogenicity and Anticancer Activity: Comparison of Correlation Weights for Identical Smiles Attributes. Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry 11(10): 974-982, 2011

Additive SMILES-based optimal descriptors in QSAR modelling bee toxicity: Using rare SMILES attributes to define the applicability domain. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry 16(9): 4801-4809, 2008

It is with pride to see the efforts, goals, and success of the Texas Dental Association Smiles Foundation--a slight understatement in that as dentists, we deal with more than smiles. Texas Dental Journal 124(12): 1178; Author Reply 1179, 2008

Studies on the smiles rearrangement. 13. Reaction conditions on the smiles rearrangement in the 3(2H)-pyridazinone system. Yakugaku Zasshi 93(2): 171-176, 1973

Smiles as signals of lower status in football players and fashion models: evidence that smiles are associated with lower dominance and lower prestige. Evolutionary Psychology 10(3): 371-397, 2013

Timing characteristics of two different facial signals Deliberate and spontaneous smiles. American Journal of Physical Anthropology Suppl. (38): 174, 2004

All smiles perceived equally: Facial expressions trump target characteristics in impression formation. Motivation and Emotion 40(4): 577-587, 2016

A truce on the Smiles rearrangement: revisiting an old reaction--the Truce-Smiles rearrangement. Chemical Society Reviews 37(11): 2452-2458, 2008

Dinosaur smiles; do the texture and morphology of the premaxilla, maxilla, and dentary bones of sauropsids provide osteological correlates for inferring extra-oral structures reliably in; dinosaurs?. Geological Society of America 41.4, 2009