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Assaying phenothiazine derivatives as trypanothione reductase and glutathione reductase inhibitors by theoretical docking and molecular dynamics studies



Assaying phenothiazine derivatives as trypanothione reductase and glutathione reductase inhibitors by theoretical docking and molecular dynamics studies



Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling 28(4): 371-381



A theoretical docking study, conducted on a sample of previously reported phenothiazine derivatives, at the binding sites of Trypanosoma cruzi trypanothione reductase (TR) and human erythrocyte glutathione reductase (GR), examines interaction energies (affinities) towards the parasite enzyme to check for selectivity with respect to the human counterpart. Phenothiazine compounds were previously shown to be TR inhibitors. The analysis of data collected from the docking procedure was undertaken both from the numeric and graphical standpoints, including the comparison of force field, energies, molecular contacts and spatial location of the different orientations that ligands acquired at the binding sites. Molecular Dynamics simulations were also carried out for derivatives with known quantitative inhibition kinetics (K(i)). The results indicate that (positively) charged phenothiazines attain larger interaction energies at TR active site, in line with previous experimental information. Suitable molecular size and shape is also needed to complement the electrostatic effect, as clearly evidenced by graphical analysis of output docked conformations. Docking energies values are reasonably well correlated with those obtained by Molecular Dynamics as well as with the experimental K(i) values, confirming once again the validity of this type of scoring methods to rapidly assess ligand-receptor affinities. Alongside newly discovered classes of TR inhibitors, the promazine (N-alkylaminopropylphenothiazine) nucleus should still be considered when good candidates are sought as leaders for selective TR inhibition.

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Accession: 051648646

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 19801198

DOI: 10.1016/j.jmgm.2009.09.003


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