Association of polymorphisms in TLR genes and in genes of the Toll-like receptor signaling pathway with cancer risk
Human Immunology 72(11): 1095-1116
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) constitute a family of receptors directly recognizing a wide spectrum of exogenous and endogenous ligands playing the key role in realization of innate and adaptive immune response, and participating in the processes of cell proliferation, survival, apoptosis, angiogenesis, tissue remodeling and repair. Polymorphisms in TLR genes may shift balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, modulating the risk of infection, chronic inflammation and cancer. The short list of TLR polymorphisms perspective for oncogenomic investigations can include rs10008492, rs4833103, rs5743815, rs11466657, rs7696175 (TLR1-TLR6-TLR10 gene cluster); rs3804100, rs4696480, -196 - -174 del (Delta22), GT-microsatellite polymorphism (TLR2); 829A/C (TLR3); rs5743836, rs352140 (TLR9). The extended list can additionally include rs4833095 rs5743551, rs5743618 (TLR1); rs5743704, rs62323857, rs1219178642 (TLR2); rs5743305, rs3775291, rs121434431, rs5743316 (TLR3); rs5744168 (TLR5); rs179008 (TLR7); rs3764880, rs2407992 (TLR8); rs352139, rs187084, rs41308230, rs5743844 (TLR9); rs4129009 (TLR10). General reasons for discrepancies between studies are insufficiency of sample size, age/gender/BMI/ethnic/racial differences, differences in prevalence of infectious agent in case and control groups, differences in immune response caused by specific ligand, differences in stratification, methods of diagnostics of cancer or chronic inflammatory conditions, genotyping methods, and chance. Future well-designed studies on large samples should shed light on the significance of TLR polymorphisms for cancer prevention.