Brazilin induces apoptosis and G2/M arrest via inactivation of histone deacetylase in multiple myeloma U266 cells
Kim, B.; Kim, S.-H.; Jeong, S.-J.; Sohn, E.J.; Jung, J.H.; Lee, M.H.; Kim, S.-H.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 60(39): 9882-9889
Although brazilin [7,11b-dihydrobenz(b)indeno[1,2-d]pyran-3,6a,9,10(6H)-tetrol] isolated from Caesalpinia sappan was known to have various biological activities, including anti-inflammation, antibacteria, and antiplatelet aggregation, there is no report yet on its anticancer activity. In the present study, the anticancer mechanism of brazilin was elucidated in human multiple myeloma U266 cells. We found that brazilin significantly inhibited the activity of histone deacetylases (HDACs), transcription factors involved in the regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in U266 cells. Consistently, brazilin enhanced acetylation of histone H3 at Lys 23, indicating activation of histone acetyltransferase (HAT), and also suppressed the expressions of HDAC1 and HDAC2 at both protein and mRNA levels. Additionally, brazilin significantly increased the number of sub-G1 cell population and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells undergoing apoptosis and also activated caspase-3 and regulated the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins, including Bax, Bcl-x(L), and Bcl-2 in U266 cells, indicating that brazilin induces apoptosis through the mitochondria-dependent pathway. Interestingly, cell cycle analysis revealed that brazilin induced G2/M phase arrest along with apoptosis induction. Consistently, brazilin attenuated the expression of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), such as cyclin D1, cyclin B1, and cyclin E, and also activated p21 and p27 in U266 cells. Furthermore, HAT inhibitor anacardic acid reversed activation of acetyl-histone H3 and cleavage of PARP induced by brazilin, while pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK001 did not affect the expression of HDAC induced by brazilin that brazilin mediates apoptosis via inactivation of HDAC in U266 cells. Notably, brazilin significantly potentiated the cytotoxic effect of standard chemotherapeutic agents, such as bortezomib or doxorubicin, in U266 cells. When our findings are taken together, they suggest that brazilin has potential as a chemotherapeutic agent alone or in combination with an anticancer agent for multiple myeloma treatment.