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Burden of non-AIDS-defining and non-virus-related cancers among HIV-infected patients in the combined antiretroviral therapy era

Burden of non-AIDS-defining and non-virus-related cancers among HIV-infected patients in the combined antiretroviral therapy era

Aids Research and Human Retroviruses 29(8): 1097-1104

The risk of cancer is substantially increased in HIV-infected patients. However, little is known about non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs) without an infectious etiology. A total of 5,090 HIV-infected patients registered in the Local Health Authority (LHA) of Brescia and receiving primary care at our clinic were included in a retrospective (1999-2009) analysis. The cancer diagnoses were obtained through a record-linkage procedure between our database and the LHA general database and population-based Cancer Registry of LHA. We compared risks of these malignancies with those of the general population living in the same health area by using age-standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). Poisson regression analysis was used to assess factors associated with non-virus-related NADCs. We recorded an increase in the SIR of non-virus-related NADCs over time, with 138 cancers diagnosed in 131 patients. The mean incidence rate was 42.6/10,000 person years and the median age at the diagnosis was 49 (range, 28-78) years old. Stratifying for gender, only HIV-infected males had an increased risk of non-virus-related NADCs [SIR=1.86; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.55-2.26]. Risk was higher for lung (SIR=3.59; 95% CI, 2.36-5.45) and testis cancer (SIR=3.11; 95% CI, 1.48-6.52). However,, cancers of the prostate and breast in HIV-positive men and women were null (SIR=1.10; 95% CI, 0.53-2.32 and SIR=0.91; 95% CI, 0.47-1.74, respectively). The only predictors of non-virus-related NADCs included older age [incidence rate ratio (IRR)=1.10; 95% CI, 1.08-1.12 per each additional year, p<0.001] and a shorter or no exposition to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) (IRR=2.31; 95% CI, 1.38-3.89, p=0.002). A CD4⁺ count lower than 50/mm³ was significantly associated with cancers only in the univariate model (IRR=1.40; 95% CI, 0.99-1.98, p=0.057). HIV-infected men showed a 2-fold increased risk of non-virus-related NADCs compared to the general population. However, the use of cART appeared to be beneficial in protecting against the development of these malignancies.

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Accession: 051879850

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PMID: 23581483

DOI: 10.1089/aid.2012.0321

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