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Cell entry mechanisms of coronaviruses

Cell entry mechanisms of coronaviruses

Uirusu 59(2): 215-222

Enveloped viruses enter into cells via fusion of their envelope and cellular membrane. Spike (S) protein of coronavirus (CoV) is responsible for entry events. We studied the cell entry mechanisms of two different CoVs, murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). MHV-JHM that induces syncytia in infected cells entered directly from cell surface, i.e., fusion of envelope and plasma membrane, whereas SARS-CoV and MHV-2 that fail to induce syncytia entered via endosome in a protease-dependent fashion, i.e., fusion of envelope and endosomal membrane. The latter viruses entered directly from cell surface, when receptor-bound viruses were treated with proteases that activate fusion activity of their S proteins. The entry pathway of SARS-CoV could influence the severity of the disease. It was also reveled that a highly neurovirulent JHM spread in a receptor-independent fashion, which could result in a high neuropathogenicity of the virus.

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Accession: 051981193

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PMID: 20218330

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