Chemical and Free Radical-scavenging Activity Changes of Ginsenoside Re by Maillard Reaction and Its Possible Use as a Renoprotective Agent
Yamabe, N.; Song, K.Il.; Lee, W.; Han, I-Ho.; Lee, J.Hwan.; Ham, J.; Kim, S-Nam.; Park, J.Hill.; Kang, K.Sung.
Journal of Ginseng Research 36(3): 256-262
ISSN/ISBN: 1226-8453 PMID: 23717126 Accession: 052044924
Reactive oxygen species play critical role in kidney damage. Free radical-scavenging activities of Panax ginseng are known to be increased by heat-processing. The structural change of ginsenoside and the generation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) are closely related to the increased free radical-scavenging activities. In the present study, we have demonstrated the Maillard reaction model experiment using ginsenoside Re and glycine mixture to identify the renoprotective effect of MRPs from ginseng or ginsenosides. Ginsenoside Re was transformed into less-polar ginsenosides, namely Rg2, Rg6 and F4 by heat-processing. The free radical-scavenging activity of ginsenoside Re-glycine mixture was increased in a temperature-dependant manner by heatprocessing. The improved free radical-scavenging activity by heat-processing was mediated by the generation of antioxidant MRPs which led to the protection of LLC-PK1 renal epithelial cells from oxidative stress. Although the free radical scavenging activities of less-polar ginsenosides were weak, they could protect LLC-PK1 cells from oxidative stress. Therefore, MRPs and less-polar ginsenosides contributed to the combined renoprotective effects against oxidative renal damage.