+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Cocirculation of two distinct genetic and antigenic lineages of proposed influenza D virus in cattle

Cocirculation of two distinct genetic and antigenic lineages of proposed influenza D virus in cattle

Journal of Virology 89(2): 1036-1042

Viruses with approximately 50% homology to human influenza C virus (ICV) have recently been isolated from swine and cattle. The overall low homology to ICV, lack of antibody cross-reactivity to ICV in hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and agar gel immunodiffusion assays, and inability to productively reassort with ICV led to the proposal that these viruses represented a new genus of influenza virus, influenzavirus D (IDV). To further our understanding of the epidemiology of IDV, real-time reverse transcription-PCR was performed on a set of 208 samples from bovines with respiratory disease. Ten samples (4.8%) were positive and six viruses were successfully isolated in vitro. Phylogenetic analysis of full-genome sequences of these six new viruses and four previously reported viruses revealed two distinct cocirculating lineages represented by D/swine/Oklahoma/1334/2011 (D/OK) and D/bovine/Oklahoma/660/2013 (D/660), which frequently reassorted with one another. Antigenic analysis using the HI assay and lineage-representative D/OK and D/660 antiserum found up to an approximate 10-fold loss in cross-reactivity against heterologous clade antiserum. One isolate, D/bovine/Texas/3-13/2011 (D/3-13), clustered with the D/660 lineage, but also had high HI titers to heterologous (D/OK) clade antiserum. Molecular modeling of the hemagglutinin esterase fusion protein of D/3-13 identified a mutation at position 212 as a possible antigenic determinant responsible for the discrepant HI results. These results suggest that IDV is common in bovines with respiratory disease and that at least two genetic and antigenically distinct clades cocirculate. A novel bovine influenza virus was recently identified. Detailed genetic and antigenic studies led to the proposal that this virus represents a new genus of influenza, influenzavirus D (IDV). Here, we show that IDV is common in clinical samples of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), with a prevalence similar to that of other established BRDC etiological agents. These results are in good agreement with the near-ubiquitous seroprevalence of IDV previously found. Phylogenetic analysis of complete genome sequences found evidence for two distinct cocirculating lineages of IDV which freely reassort. Significant antigenic differences, which generally agreed with the surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin esterase phylogeny, were observed between the two lineages. Based on these results, and on the ability of IDV to infect and transmit in multiple mammalian species, additional studies to determine the pathogenic potential of IDV are warranted.

Please choose payment method:

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 052154191

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 25355894

DOI: 10.1128/jvi.02718-14

Related references

Cocirculation of two distinct lineages of equine influenza virus subtype H3N8. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 37(9): 3005-3009, 1999

Cocirculation of two distinct evolutionary lineages of influenza type B virus since 1983. Virology 175(1): 59-68, 1990

Origin and evolutionary pathways of the H1 hemagglutinin gene of avian, swine and human influenza viruses: cocirculation of two distinct lineages of swine virus. Archives of Virology 134(1/2): 17-28, 1994

Genetic diversity of influenza B virus: the frequent reassortment and cocirculation of the genetically distinct reassortant viruses in a community. Journal of Medical Virology 74(1): 132-140, 2004

Cocirculation of antigenic variants and the vaccine-type virus during the 2004-2005 influenza B virus epidemics in Japan. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 47(2): 352-357, 2009

Cocirculation of two distinct groups of influenza C virus in Yamagata City, Japan. Virology 202(2): 796-802, 1994

Cocirculation and evolution of two lineages of influenza B viruses in europe and Israel in the 2001-2002 season. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 41(12): 5770-5773, 2003

Cocirculation of Two Lineages of Toscana Virus in Croatia. Frontiers in Public Health 5: 336, 2017

Immune response to inactivated influenza virus vaccine: antibody reactivity with epidemic influenza B viruses of two highly distinct evolutionary lineages. Vaccine 10(9): 631-636, 1992

Expanded cocirculation of stable subtypes, emerging lineages, and new sporadic reassortants of porcine influenza viruses in swine populations in Northwest Germany. Journal of Virology 87(19): 10460-10476, 2013

Virological surveillance in Africa can contribute to early detection of new genetic and antigenic lineages of influenza viruses. Journal of Infection in Developing Countries 5(4): 270-277, 2011

Distinct lineages of influenza virus H4 hemagglutinin genes in different regions of the world. Virology 169(2): 408-417, 1989

Identification of two antigenically and genetically distinct lineages of H3N8 equine influenza virus in Sweden. Epidemiology and Infection 120(1): 61-70, 1998

High genetic and antigenic similarity between a swine H3N2 influenza A virus and a prior human influenza vaccine virus: a possible immune pressure-driven cross-species transmission. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 385(3): 402-407, 2009

Human parainfluenza virus type 1 evolution combines cocirculation of strains and development of geographically restricted lineages. Journal of Infectious Diseases 169(2): 248-252, 1994