Bedside ultrasonography screening for congenital renal anomalies in children with congenital heart diseases undergoing cardiac repair
Hamadah, H.K.; Hijazi, O.; Faraji, M.A.; Kabbani, M.S.
Journal of the Saudi Heart Association 30(2): 95-101
Ultrasound (US) assessment of renal anomalies in children requiring pediatric cardiac surgery is not a standard practice. This study is highlighting the role of bedside US performed by intensivist to detect occult renal anomalies associated with congenital heart disease (CHD). A cross sectional study for 100 consecutive children with CHD admitted to Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Unit (PCICU) in 2015. US of kidneys screening was performed by trained pediatric cardiac intensivists to ascertain the presence of both kidneys in renal fossae without gross anomalies and to investigate if early detection of occult kidney anomaly would have any impact on outcome. After screening of 100 consecutive children with CHD with renal US, we identified in 94 cases (94%) normal right and left kidney in the standard sonographer shape within the renal fossae. In 6 cases further investigation revealed ectopic kidney in 3 patients (50%), solitary functional kidney in 2 patients (33%) and bilateral grade IV hydronephrosis in one patient (17%). Urinary tract infection developed peri-operatively in 66% of the cases with kidney anomalies with statistical significance compared to patients with normal renal US (P: 0.0011). No significant renal impairment was noted in these patients post-surgery. We observed no specific association between the type of renal anomaly and specific CHD. Routine renal US in children with CHD demonstrated prevalence of associated congenital renal anomalies in 6% of children undergoing cardiac surgery. The presence of occult renal anomalies was associated with higher UTI risk. Performing routine renal US as a standard practice in children with CHD is justifiable.