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Comparison outcomes of surfactant therapy in respiratory distress syndrome in two periods

Comparison outcomes of surfactant therapy in respiratory distress syndrome in two periods

Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand 91(Suppl. 3): S109

Exogenous surfactant replacement therapy has been a part of the routine care of preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) since 1990s. In Thailand, the utilization of surfactant replacement therapy had been limited due to the high cost until the National Health Insurance Policy began in 2003 which covered the cost of surfactant. Nowadays surfactant replacement therapy is more frequently used at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health, so the authors were interested in evaluating its use in RDS. To compare the outcome and complications of surfactant replacement therapy in newborns who were diagnosed with moderate to severe RDS during two times period. Retrospective study. The data of infants who were diagnosed as moderate to severe RDS and treated with surfactant at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health between January 1st, 2003 and December 31th, 2005 were reviewed. The outcome of this study (Group II) was compared to the previous study conducted in 1999-2002 (Group I). The complications, mortality rate, association time of start surfactant and duration of ventilation were reviewed. The data of ninety-one moderate to severe RDS patients who received surfactant replacement therapy were reviewed. The mean birth weight and gestational age in this group were 1250 +/- 435.57 gm and 29.38 +/- 2.2 week less than in the first group 1,344 +/- 452.37gm and 29.69 +/- 2.61 week. The second group showed statistical differences in antepartum hemorrhage (4.4%) and pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) (17.6%) while the first group had 33.3% ofantepartum hemorrhage and 3% of PIH. In neonatal conditions, there were statistical significant differences in anemia 28.6% in group II compared to 9% in group I and patent ductus arteriosus 67% in group II compared to 39.4% in group I. Surfactant was given earlier in life (4.75 +/- 2.76 hours) in the second group compared to the first group (7.21 +/- 4.92 hour) and the overall duration ofpatients on mechanical ventilation in Group II (6 days) was shorter than in Group I (16 days). This was especially more evident in patients who received surfactant within the first six hours of life. The immediate complication, pulmonary hemorrhage was found in more cases in Group I (33.3%) than in Group II (12.1%) but bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) was found to be a late complication in more cases in Group II (46.1%) than in Group I (21.2%). The mean length of admission was longer in Group II (61.23 +/- 41.08 days) compared to Group I (38.5 +/- 23.48 days) and the mortality rate in Group II was 18.7% (17 cases) lower than Group I 33.3% (11 cases). Surfactant therapy in moderate to severe RDS can shorten the duration of ventilation and decrease the mortality rate, but has no effect in decreasing the incidence of chronic lung disease. Nevertheless the earlier the surfactant therapy is started, the higher the survival rate.

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Accession: 052251368

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PMID: 19253505

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