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Comprehensive analysis of medaka major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes: implications for evolution in teleosts



Comprehensive analysis of medaka major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes: implications for evolution in teleosts



Immunogenetics 65(12): 883-895



The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules play central roles in adaptive immunity by regulating immune response via the activation of CD4 T cells. The full complement of the MHC class II genes has been elucidated only in mammalian species to date. To understand the evolution of these genes, we performed their first comprehensive analysis in nonmammalian species using a teleost, medaka (Oryzias latipes). Based on a database search, cDNA cloning, and genomic PCR, medaka was shown to possess five pairs of expressed class II genes, comprising one IIA and one IIB gene. Each pair was located on a different chromosome and was not linked to the class I genes. Only one pair showed a high degree of polymorphism and was considered to be classical class II genes, whereas the other four pairs were nonclassical. Phylogenetic analysis of all medaka class II genes and most reported teleost class II genes revealed that the IIA and IIB genes formed separate clades, each containing three well-corresponding lineages. One lineage contained three medaka genes and all known classical class II genes of Ostariophysi and Euteleostei and was presumed to be an original lineage of the teleost MHC class II genes. The other two lineages contained one nonclassical medaka gene each and some Euteleostei genes. These results indicate that multiple lineages of the teleost MHC class II genes have been conserved for hundreds of millions of years and that the tightly linked IIA and IIB genes have undergone concerted evolution.

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Accession: 052269825

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PMID: 23989892

DOI: 10.1007/s00251-013-0731-8


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