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Disruption of G protein-coupled receptor 39 impairs insulin secretion in vivo

Disruption of G protein-coupled receptor 39 impairs insulin secretion in vivo

Endocrinology 150(6): 2586-2595

ISSN/ISBN: 0013-7227

PMID: 19213841

DOI: 10.1210/en.2008-1251

GPR39 is a G protein-coupled receptor expressed in liver, gastrointestinal tract, adipose tissue, and pancreas. We have recently shown that young GPR39(-/-) mice have normal body weight, food intake, and fasting glucose and insulin levels. In this study, we examined the role of GPR39 in aging and diet-induced obese mice. Body weight and food intake were similar in wild-type and GPR39(-/-) mice as they aged from 12 to 52 wk or when fed a low-fat/high-sucrose or high-fat/high-sucrose diet. Fifty-two-week-old GPR39(-/-) mice showed a trend toward decreased insulin levels after oral glucose challenge. When fed either a low-fat/high-sucrose or high-fat/high-sucrose diet, GPR39(-/-) mice had increased fed glucose levels and showed decreased serum insulin levels during an oral glucose tolerance test in the face of unchanged insulin tolerance. Pancreas morphology and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in isolated islets from wild-type and GPR39(-/-) mice were comparable, suggesting that GPR39 is not required for pancreas development or ex vivo insulin secretion. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of GPR39 in clonal NIT-1 beta-cells revealed that GPR39 regulates the expression of insulin receptor substrate-2 and pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1 in a cell-autonomous manner; insulin receptor substrate-2 mRNA was also significantly decreased in the pancreas of GPR39(-/-) mice. Taken together, our data indicate that GPR39 is required for the increased insulin secretion in vivo under conditions of increased demand, i.e. on development of age-dependent and diet-induced insulin resistance. Thus, GPR39 agonists may have potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

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Accession: 052656013

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