Effect of dietary supplemental vitamin A concentration on performance, carcass merit, serum metabolites, and lipogenic enzyme activity in yearling beef steers
Bryant, T.C.; Wagner, J.J.; Tatum, J.D.; Galyean, M.L.; Anthony, R.V.; Engle, T.E.
Journal of Animal Science 88(4): 1463-1478
ISSN/ISBN: 0021-8812 PMID: 20023133 DOI: 10.2527/jas.2009-2313
A randomized complete block design experiment with 360 single-source black yearling steers (average BW = 316.1 +/- 9.1 kg) fed a 91% concentrate (steam-flaked corn base) diet was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplemental vitamin A (0, 1,103, 2,205, 4,410, or 8,820 IU/kg of dietary DM) on plasma and liver vitamin A and E concentrations, lipogenic enzyme activity, marbling score, and performance of yearling steers. Final BW (586, 580, 590, 585, and 584 kg for 0, 1,103, 2,205, 4,410, and 8,820 IU of supplemental vitamin A/kg of DM, respectively) did not differ (P = 0.39) among treatments. Feed efficiency, ADG, and daily DMI did not differ (P > 0.10) among treatments within each 28-d period or for the overall experiment. From d 57 to slaughter, average DMI (10.33, 10.28, 10.57, 9.75, and 10.22 kg/steer daily for 0, 1,103, 2,205, 4,410, and 8,820 IU of vitamin A/kg of DM, respectively) was less (P < 0.02) by steers receiving 4,410 IU of supplemental vitamin A/kg of dietary DM than for steers in the other treatments. Furthermore, DMI was greater (P = 0.06) for steers receiving 2,205 IU of supplemental vitamin A/kg of dietary DM than for steers receiving 8,820 IU of supplemental vitamin A/kg of DM. Marbling score, HCW, LM area, and 12th-rib fat thickness did not differ (P > 0.10) among treatments. Similarly, the percentage of carcasses grading >or=USDA Choice (62.6, 52.8, 64.0, 58.4, and 58.4% for 0, 1,103, 2,205, 4,410, and 8,820 IU of vitamin A/kg of DM, respectively), Select, or <or=Standard did not differ (P > 0.10) among treatments. Except for d 56 (P = 0.050; r = 0.18 for liver retinol), no correlations (P > 0.10) between marbling score and any plasma or liver tissue retinol or alpha-tocopherol concentrations or vitamin A intake were found, and no differences (P > 0.10) in lipogenic enzyme activity were detected among treatments. Taken together with previous and concurrent research, results of this experiment suggest that vitamin A supplementation at a concentration up to twice the NRC recommendation has little effect on performance, marbling, or lipogenic enzyme activity in adipose tissue samples in yearling feedlot steers, and that 2,205 IU of supplemental vitamin A/kg of DM (20,000 IU/steer daily) or less is adequate to meet the vitamin A requirements of finishing beef cattle.