Effect of iontophoresis on topical delivery of doxorubicin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles
Taveira, Sânia.F.; De Santana, D.C.A.S.; Araújo, L.M.P.C.; Marquele-Oliveira, F.; Nomizo, A.; Lopez, R.F.V.
Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology 10(7): 1382-1390
The combination of iontophoresis with solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) for targeting drug delivery to the epidermis has not been explored. The goal of this paper was to study the influence of iontophoresis on the penetration of doxorubicin (DOX) delivered in SLNs (DOX-SLNs). We measured the contribution of electroosmotic flow to the transport of DOX, and the accumulation of DOX in the stratum corneum (SC) and in the viable epidermis was determined. In addition, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of DOX-SLNs against skin cancer cells. Iontophoresis of unloaded SLNs decreased the electroosmotic flow by a factor of 5 and increased the skin resistance. Nevertheless, iontophoresis of DOX-SLNs increased DOX delivery to the viable epidermis, with 56% of all DOX penetrating this skin layer. Only 26% of the drug was retained in the SC. In contrast, passive delivery retained 43% of DOX in the SC and 26% in the viable epidermis. DOX-SLNs increased DOX cytotoxicity against melanoma cells by 50%. These results suggest the use of DOX-SLN iontophoresis in the topical treatment of skin cancer.