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Effects of an iron or iron and vitamin D-fortified flavored skim milk on iron metabolism: a randomized controlled double-blind trial in iron-deficient women

Effects of an iron or iron and vitamin D-fortified flavored skim milk on iron metabolism: a randomized controlled double-blind trial in iron-deficient women

Journal of the American College of Nutrition 32(5): 312-320

ISSN/ISBN: 0731-5724

PMID: 24219374

DOI: 10.1080/07315724.2013.826116

Iron deficiency anemia and vitamin D deficiency are considered global pandemics. The aim of this study was to determine whether the consumption of a dairy product fortified with iron and vitamin D, compared to the equivalent with only added iron, exerts an additional effect on iron metabolism in iron-deficient menstruating women. The design was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group trial of 16 weeks' duration. Subjects were randomized into 2 groups that consumed, as part of their usual diet, 500 mL/day of an iron (n = 54) or iron- and vitamin D-fortified (n = 55) flavored skim milk. At baseline and monthly, dietary intake, body weight, and hematological and iron metabolism biomarkers were determined. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was analyzed at baseline and weeks 8 and 16. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) of repeated measures for time and Time × Group interaction effects. A total of 109 volunteers completed the study. Calcium and iron intakes increased during the intervention (p < 0.001 for both groups). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D significantly increased in Fe + D group during the assay (p < 0.001) and at week 16 it was higher compared to the Fe group (p < 0.05). Serum ferritin, serum transferrin, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and red blood cell distribution width showed significant time effects but no Time × Group interaction. Higher values of erythrocytes (p = 0.01), hematocrit (p = 0.05), and hemoglobin (p = 0.03) at week 8 were observed in the Fe + D group compared to the Fe group. Iron-fortified flavored skim milk does not improve iron status in iron-deficient menstruating women. However, vitamin D fortification slightly enhances erythropoiesis and iron status.

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Accession: 052855444

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